Welcome to the Caregivers’ Guide to Medicinal Cannabis. As a caregiver, we understand that ensuring the well-being of your loved one during an illness can be challenging. Whether you’re looking after elderly parents, taking care of elderly family members, or caring for someone else important in your life – caregiving is a big responsibility. That’s why we’re dedicated to helping caregivers and providing them with the knowledge and support they need to care for themselves and their loved ones.
Medicinal cannabis has been shown to help people with a variety of physical and mental health issues. From glaucoma to chronic pain, chemotherapy and even sleep problems, medicinal cannabis has the potential to help chronically or terminally ill people, including ageing parents, to manage symptoms, enhance their comfort, and improve quality of life.
This guide has been created for care givers just like you, so that they can better understand the fundamentals of medicinal cannabis, explore the science behind medicinal cannabis benefits, and find out how to potentially integrate medicinal cannabis into your loved ones care routine.
If you’re thinking about medicinal cannabis for an elderly parent or loved one, a good first step is to get to know the medicinal cannabis basics, including its therapeutic effects, administration methods, how medicinal cannabis differs from recreational use, and the legalities of medicinal cannabis in Australia. Let’s get started.
A caregiver is someone who provides care and support to another person who may be unable to fully take care of themselves due to age, illness, disability, or other challenges.
Caregivers help with daily tasks, offer emotional support, and ensure the well-being of those they care for. You may be looking after elderly parents, taking care of elderly family members, or caring for a child or a friend.
Medicinal cannabis is a type of plant medicine with therapeutic chemical compounds, most notably tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) that have been shown to provide a range of health benefits and manage various conditions.
These chemical compounds engage with the body's endocannabinoid system (a network of receptors that control numerous bodily functions) to help people manage short-term, chronic, and end-of-life conditions
Cannabis plants contain a wide variety of cannabinoids, each with its own potential effects and properties. Some of the most well-known and studied cannabinoids found in cannabis plants include:
Just like there are different types of common medications, there are different types of medical cannabis treatments. Treatments vary in terms of the format they come in (e.g. oils, dry herb flower that is vaporised, topicals, wafers and more), the cannabinoid and terpene content and potency.
Caring for elderly parents comes with its own unique set of challenges but medicinal cannabis can support you in providing ageing parents with additional pain relief and comfort. In Australia, where medicinal cannabis is becoming recognized for its wide-ranging therapeutic benefits for age-related conditions.
From providing chronic pain and arthritis relief to tackling sleep disorders and glaucoma, and even providing support through cancer treatments, medicinal cannabis has the potential to offer a multifaceted approach to enhancing the well-being of seniors.
Cannabinoids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). In medicinal cannabis, there are several types of cannabinoids that work in the body in different ways.
There is also increasing evidence for the therapeutic potential of minor cannabinoids:
The cannabinoid profile of a medicinal cannabis treatment can vary significantly based on factors such as genetics, growing conditions, and processing methods. Researchers are continuing to study these cannabinoids to better understand their individual effects and potential therapeutic applications.
Terpenes (pronounced tur-peens) are the organic, aromatic compounds found in plants, including cannabis. Until recently, much of the cannabis industry has been focused almost solely on the therapeutic qualities of cannabinoids like THC and CBD.
However, as our knowledge of terpenes continues to grow and cannabis science expands, it’s becoming increasingly apparent that these aromatic compounds are medicinal powerhouses in their own right.
Within different strains, you’ll find specific terpenes. Again, just like with wine or other plants, terpenes are aromatic compounds that contribute to the plant's distinct smell and flavour. They also interact with cannabinoids and may influence the effects of medicinal cannabis consumption
There are more than 100 different terpenes identified in cannabis plants, each with its own unique aroma, flavour, and potential therapeutic properties, however, some common terpenes include:
Each medicinal cannabis treatment will vary in cannabinoid and terpene content and each patient has unique needs so it’s important to work with experienced medical cannabis clinics or an experienced medical cannabis doctor to determine the best treatment plan for your loved one.
As a caregiver, you might wonder how your loved one or your ageing parents would take medicinal cannabis. Many people unfamiliar with this medication may only know of the inhalation method for medicinal cannabis (smoking/vaping) but there are actually many administration methods for medicinal cannabis that can be personalised to your loved one’s preferences and needs.
Common administration methods include:
As a caregiver, you may not have a lot of knowledge about medicinal cannabis or you may have only heard of recreational cannabis before. If that’s the case — don’t worry! We’re here to help.
Medicinal cannabis, sometimes referred to as medical marijuana, is quite different from recreational cannabis. It involves the controlled and therapeutic use of cannabis plants to alleviate symptoms or manage specific medical conditions by modulating the body’s endocannabinoid system.
Unlike recreational use, which focuses on the THC component of the cannabis plant (sometimes known as a cannabis ‘high’), medicinal cannabis focuses on providing therapeutic relief. This may be achieved by using a medication that is not psychoactive, such as those containing CBD only, and/or by using a THC-containing medicine but at a lower dose than that required to produce a significant cannabis ‘high’.
Medicinal cannabis is prescribed by healthcare professionals who specialise in plant medicine. Like any medication, dosages, strains, and compositions will be carefully selected to cater to specific medical needs. Similarly, medicinal cannabis is highly regulated, requiring prescriptions and quality adherence to medical standards.
Yes. Medicinal cannabis (also known as medical cannabis prescriptions or medical marijuana) is legal in Australia. It’s recognized for its therapeutic benefits and can be accessed with a doctor's prescription. To ensure high-quality medication and treatment, it’s a good idea to go with a specialised medicinal cannabis clinic, like Polln.
There is no predetermined list of conditions for which medicinal cannabis can be prescribed — instead a doctor will work with a patient to determine whether or not medicinal cannabis could help depending on the symptoms someone is experiencing.
However, some medical conditions where medicinal cannabis may offer potential benefits, include:
As many of these conditions affect older adults or ageing parents, natural treatment options, like medical cannabis, can be a good option to be used alone or in conjunction with other medications to relieve symptoms without significant side effects..
However, the effects of medicinal cannabis can vary from person to person. Caregivers should prioritise communication with medical experts when considering medicinal cannabis as part of their loved one's care plan.
Medicinal cannabis products have shown promise in providing various therapeutic effects and can potentially improve a range of symptoms and overall quality of life in some chronically ill or even terminally ill people.
Some ways your loved one may benefit from medicinal cannabis include:
Remember: individual responses to medicinal cannabis can vary greatly and what works well for one person may not work the same way for someone else. As a caregiver, it’s important to talk with a healthcare professional, like one of our helpful Polln doctors, before incorporating medicinal cannabis into your loved one’s care plan.
As a caregiver, exploring alternative treatment options like medicinal cannabis may be a new and unfamiliar territory, but we’re here to guide you through the process of helping your loved one access this potentially beneficial treatment. By understanding the steps involved, you can ensure an informed journey towards integrating medicinal cannabis into their care plan.
To see if a loved one might be eligible for medicinal cannabis in Australia, ask yourself the following questions: 1) Do they have a chronic medical condition? Have they been experiencing symptoms for over three months?
And, 2) Have they tried other treatments prior to medicinal cannabis? Have these other treatments failed to alleviate their symptoms, have they had adverse effects, or are you or your loved one concerned about the side effects? If you said yes to the above, then their doctor should consider them a candidate for medicinal cannabis.
To see if a loved one might be eligible for medicinal cannabis access, you can help them take our free eligibility quiz or simply sign up as a patient to chat with one of our expert Polln doctors.
Take the time to talk to your loved one about medicinal cannabis and how it could potentially benefit them. Medicinal cannabis can sometimes be confusing for older patients, as it may have connotations of recreational cannabis or unconscious biases attached to it.
Talk to them about how medicinal cannabis works, explain the risks and benefits, and reassure them that medicinal cannabis is prescribed and monitored by qualified doctors — like our Polln specialists.
Once you and your loved one feel on the same page about a potential course of medicinal cannabis, the next step is to consult with your regular healthcare professionals and medicinal cannabis specialists, like our healthcare team at Polln, who have experience working with elderly patients.
Our Polln team can work with your loved one’s regular doctors to provide oversight of their medicinal canna bis treatments in association with any other medications or treatments they may currently follow.
Once you find the right healthcare team, you can work closely with them to create a personalised care plan. By having a knowledgeable medicinal cannabis expert to guide you, you can make informed decisions about your loved one’s care and ensure that the plan aligns with their overall health goals and existing treatment regimen.
Their doctor will determine the appropriate starting dosage and strain of medicinal cannabis based on your loved one’s medical history and health condition.
Depending on the doctor or clinic you choose, your loved one will be able to access their medication in several ways. Some doctors will provide a prescription that can be picked up at a limited number of specialist pharmacies. Not every pharmacy will stock medicinal cannabis, or stock the medication that your loved one has been prescribed. In this case, make sure you do your research first to save time.
Other medicinal cannabis clinics, like Polln, can arrange for medications to be sent express to your loved one’s home or care facility. This can be particularly helpful to fit in with caregivers' busy lives and reduce the wait time between appointments and treatment.
Depending on your loved ones’ capabilities, you can either teach them how to use a medication administration method (such as vaping) or administer the medication to them each day.
There are many ways your loved one can consume medicinal cannabis — including ingestion (edibles), capsules, sublingual (under-the-tongue), and topicals. Your medical cannabis specialising doctor will talk you through the application or consumption of whichever your loved one needs so that you can provide the medication to them.
And if you ever need support, as a Polln patient, you and your loved one can enjoy complimentary support from our experienced team of medicinal cannabis nurses and care coordinators who can guide you through how to administer your loved one’s medications.
If your loved one can take their own medications, it can be helpful to set up a pill box (i.e., for gummies, capsules or other edibles) or medication reminders, to ensure they are getting the correct dosage at the right times.
Once your loved one has started a course of medicinal cannabis, you and your loved one’s doctor can schedule regular check-ins to assess their response to medicinal cannabis. At these appointments, the doctor can review changes in their symptoms, mood, sleep patterns, and overall well-being, and adjust their dosage of medication frequency if required.
By following these step-by-step guidelines and working closely with healthcare experts, you can provide effective support and contribute to a positive experience for your loved one in exploring medicinal cannabis as a treatment option.
As a caregiver, closely monitoring your loved one’s response to medicinal cannabis is an important part of ensuring their well-being and optimising their treatment's effectiveness. After they first start their course of medication, get a notebook or online document, to record the following:
While medicinal cannabis can offer significant benefits for many people with chronic or life-limiting conditions, as a caregiver, it’s still important to be aware of potential risks so that you can make well-informed healthcare decisions for your loved one.
By being proactive, well-informed, and attentive to potential risks, you can minimise the chances of adverse effects and help your loved one undergo a safer course of medicinal cannabis treatment.
Let’s take a moment to appreciate all you do as a caregiver! Caregiving is such an important and inspiring experience — but it can be emotionally and physically exhausting too.
We understand that as a caregiver, you might feel guilty about taking time for your needs. But remember that caring for yourself doesn't mean you’re neglecting your loved one! In fact, prioritising self-care will help continue to care for your loved one without burning out.
Here are some tips for ensuring you don’t put your needs last.
This Caregiver's Guide to Medicinal Cannabis can help you understand the ins and outs of medicinal cannabis so that you can make informed choices for your loved one’s care. Caregiving is a deeply rewarding yet challenging role that requires significant support from medical communities to ensure that caregivers have the education and resources they need to help their loved ones.
Medicinal cannabis has shown significant potential in helping with a range of physical and mental health issues — from chronic pain management to sleep improvement, anxiety reduction, and appetite stimulation. By following the step-by-step guides included above, caregivers can navigate getting their loved one started with medicinal cannabis, help monitor and adjust treatments, and be aware of any potential risks
Here at Polln, we recognise the incredible role of caregivers and want to empower them to improve the lives and well-being of their loved ones. This guide along with other Polln resources, like our dedicated team of doctors, can help you confidently integrate medicinal cannabis into your loved one’s care routine.
Cannabinoids: These are the active chemical compounds found in cannabis plants, each with its own potential therapeutic effects. Two well-known cannabinoids are THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), both of which interact with receptors in the body's endocannabinoid system.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS): A remarkable biological system within the human body that plays a crucial role in maintaining balance (homeostasis). The ECS consists of receptors, enzymes, and endocannabinoids, and it regulates processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, pain perception, and immune response.
Terpenes: These are natural aromatic compounds found in medicinal cannabis, as well as in many other plants. Terpenes contribute to the distinct scent and flavour of different strains and may also have therapeutic properties.
Tincture: A tincture is a liquid medicinal cannabis extract that is typically placed under the tongue (sublingually) for rapid absorption. Tinctures offer a discreet and efficient way to administer medicinal cannabis, allowing for precise dosing and control over the effects.
Edibles: Edibles are food products infused with medicinal cannabis extracts. These products provide an alternative method of consumption by ingesting medicinal cannabis, which is metabolised through the digestive system.
Vaping: As a caregiver, one of the common methods for administering medicinal cannabis to a loved one is through a vaporizer. Vaporisation can help ensure fast onset of the active ingredients and is considered a safer option than smoking cannabis due to reduced exposure to harmful combustion byproducts. Smoking medicinal cannabis is not recommended.
Dosing: Dosing refers to determining and administering the appropriate amount of medcinal cannabis for therapeutic purposes.
Once you have a medical cannabis prescription in Australia, you might be wondering how often you’ll be able to access your medication? Or how much medication you would be prescribed each time. At Polln, we’re here to help you understand the ins and outs of medicinal cannabis treatments, including how medical cannabis prescriptions work.
Online medical cannabis clinics actually follow the same regulations as in-person medicinal cannabis clinics. Pharmacy dispensing limits help doctors and pharmacists manage the amount of medication patients have access to at any one time, while dispensing intervals help ensure that patients are able to maintain their medication treatment plan safely without gaps.
Learn more about dispensing limits and Intervals for medicinal cannabis and why they’re so important for patients, doctors, and pharmacies. Let’s get started.
Dispensing limits are the maximum amount of a medication that can be dispensed by a pharmacy in a single medical cannabis prescription. These limits are set by your doctor and guided by the government’s classification system to make sure that patients can safely access their medications while also reducing potential risks, like misuse or addiction. For medical cannabis prescription in Australia, dispensing limits are influenced by a system of scheduling. Scheduling is a classification system created by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) that controls how medicines can be made available to the public.
The TGA classifies medicinal cannabis as either Schedule 8, Schedule 4, or Schedule 3, depending on its active chemical compounds — the percentages of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) or CBD (cannabidiol) — and its risk potential in regards to misuse or addiction.
Depending on the type of medicinal cannabis you are prescribed by your doctor, your medication could be classified as:
As of February 2022, doctors can prescribe a Schedule 8 treatment to non-drug dependent patients without having to get a specialised permit from the Victorian Department of Health.
Many things can influence your dispensing limit of medicinal cannabis. These factors include:
Even though dispensing limits can sometimes feel inconvenient, they serve as an important tool in helping manage the safe and responsible use of medicinal cannabis across Australia. Dispensing limits can help you monitor your medical routine more safely and effectively. Here are some benefits of implementing dispensing limits for medicinal cannabis:
Remember: it’s important to communicate openly with your medicinal cannabis healthcare providers and pharmacists, especially if you have concerns or have experienced any difficulties adhering to the recommended dispensing limits and intervals. By working together patients and healthcare professionals can optimise the therapeutic benefits of medicinal cannabis and minimise any potential risks.
Dispensing intervals refer to how often medications can be supplied to patients. There aren’t any set rules for dispensing intervals that apply uniformly across Australia for medical cannabis.
Dispensing intervals can vary based on several factors, including the schedule of the medical cannabis product, the patient's medical condition, the prescribing doctor's judgement, and local regulations.
How a doctor decides on dispensing intervals for a medicinal cannabis patient depends on several factors. Healthcare authorities and regulatory bodies may provide guidelines or recommendations for appropriate dispensing intervals, but these are often adaptable to individual patient situations — after all, what works for one patient’s condition isn’t always guaranteed to work for someone else.
At Polln, we personalise prescriptions depending on the needs of each patient. Our dispensing limits and intervals will depend on many factors, including a patient’s health condition, symptoms, or even their location. As rural and regional patients often face a much longer wait time for their medications, reducing ordering intervals can allow them to avoid medication gaps.
Dispensing Limits and Intervals are an important part of a safe and successful medicinal cannabis treatment plan. By adhering to a consistent dosing regime, you can help ensure that your medicinal cannabis treatment can maintain its therapeutic effects and help your doctor better monitor your treatment and health outcomes.
Remember: medicinal cannabis can be either a Schedule 3, 4 or 8 medicine. So as a controlled drug, it’s even more important for patients to adhere to their set dispensing limits and intervals.
There is no single answer for how often you can fill your medicinal cannabis script. The frequency in which you can fill your medicinal cannabis prescriptions will vary depending on your personal situation and your health condition.
Pharmacy dispensing limits and intervals are an important part of ensuring a safe and effective medicinal cannabis treatment plan. Dispensing limits are influenced by the medication schedules of your medicinal cannabis type (Schedules 8, 4, and 3) which represent the percentage of THC vs. CBD present in your medication.
Pharmacy dispensing limits and intervals will be tailored to your healthcare needs by your doctor and are based on your condition, symptoms, and location. If you have any questions about your dispensing limits and intervals, we suggest discussing this with your doctor in your next consultation or reaching out to our friendly Care Team at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Just like birth, death is a natural part of the human experience — yet it remains one of the most sensitive and least discussed topics in society. Dying to Know Day helps people start important discussions around end-of-life planning and ensures that people in the final stages of life can receive the compassionate care they deserve.
The annual event observed on the 8th of August each year in Australia, "Dying to Know Day" raises awareness about planning for death and encourages all adult Australians to be strong self-advocates for end-of-life and palliative care choices.
When you’re thinking about palliative care planning for yourself or a loved one, it can be hard to know where to start or what medications could provide the most comfort. Medicinal cannabis has emerged as an effective complementary therapy in the field of palliative care for some patients, with ongoing scientific research showing that medicinal cannabis may help to alleviate pain, reduce discomfort, and address distressing symptoms experienced by terminally ill patients.
So today, let’s learn more about the importance of Dying to Know Day, explore palliative care, and learn about how medicinal cannabis may help people naturally reduce their pain and improve their quality of life in their final days.
Dying to Know Day is an annual event observed on the 8th of August in Australia.
The event encourages people to start conversations about advance care planning, palliative care options, and — importantly— how to document your healthcare preferences before you think you’ll need to.
Avoiding the topic of death is fairly normal. It’s hard to imagine the end of our lives or imagine the people we love reaching the end of their lives. For many people, it’s easier to put off hard conversations and continue living in the moment. However, the fear of this natural transition can sometimes mean that our end-of-life wishes aren’t known or acted upon later.
In Australia, Death can be a very difficult subject. So much so that a recent study indicated that up to 70% of Australians don’t have a legally binding will and only 15% of the general adult community and 14% of older people have advanced care planning in place to document their healthcare decisions if they become seriously ill and unable to communicate their treatment preferences.
Through community events, workshops, and educational programs, Dying to Know Day seeks to empower individuals to make informed decisions about their healthcare, ensuring their wishes are respected. This day provides an opportunity for us to be brave and embrace the facts of death and dying, including cultural practices, spiritual beliefs, and the role of palliative care.
Palliative care is a holistic approach to end-of-life healthcare that focuses on providing support, relief, and comfort to individuals with life-limiting illnesses. Unlike curative treatments that target the underlying disease, palliative care aims to improve the overall quality of life for patients and their families by addressing physical, emotional, psychosocial, and spiritual needs.
This specialised form of care is not always limited to end-of-life stages but can be provided alongside curative treatments to enhance the patient's well-being throughout the course of their illness.
Understanding what kind of palliative care you want, or want for your family is an important part of end-of-life planning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, social workers, counsellors, or our specialist Polln doctors to provide unique medicinal cannabis support, can collaborate to create personalised care plans that cater to each patient's unique needs.
There is no one palliative care medication. Instead, a variety of medications may be prescribed to manage pain, control symptoms, and address specific medical needs. Some of the common palliative care medications that people may want to include in their end-of-life planning include:
Remember that medication choices during palliative care are different for every person and that your or a loved one’s patient needs may change over time. Regular assessment, communication, and adjustments to medication regimens are an important part of overall palliative care management.
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential of medicinal cannabis as a complementary therapy in palliative care. Medicinal cannabis contains various cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), which interact with the body's endocannabinoid system to produce a range of therapeutic effects.
One benefit of medicinal cannabis for end-of-life care is that it is able to manage several common palliative care areas at once, these include:
If you’re thinking about including medicinal cannabis into your or a loved one’s end-of-life care plans, then it’s a good idea to reach out to a knowledgeable doctor, like a member of our caring Polln team, about your options and learn more about how medicinal cannabis can potentially support comfort care for the dying.
It’s also important to remember that while medicinal cannabis holds promise as a complementary therapy in palliative care, the effectiveness of medicinal cannabis may vary depending on individual factors such as the patient's specific medical condition, medical history, and tolerance levels.
Cannabinoids, the active compounds found in medicinal cannabis, interact with the body's endocannabinoid system in different ways to regulate various bodily functions. In palliative medicine, certain cannabinoids provide different kinds of potential therapeutic benefits for patients facing life-limiting illnesses. Some cannabinoids that could provide therapeutic benefits in palliative care include:
THC is one of the primary compounds in cannabis, commonly known for its euphoric effects (aka the ‘high’). In palliative care, THC-rich medications are often prescribed to address pain and discomfort experienced by patients.
CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in medicinal cannabis. It can provide therapeutic effects without causing the "high" associated with THC. In palliative medicine, CBD-dominant treatments are often prescribed to address symptoms like anxiety, nausea, and inflammation.
CBN is a minor cannabinoid that’s found in aged or oxidised medicinal cannabis. While CBN is not as extensively studied as THC or CBD, some research suggests potential sedative effects that may aid in sleep and relaxation for patients experiencing insomnia or restlessness.
Delta-8-THC is a less potent isomer of Delta-9-THC, the primary psychoactive compound in medicinal cannabis. It exhibits milder psychoactive effects and may be considered as an option for patients who are sensitive to Delta-9-THC.
CBG is another non-psychoactive minor cannabinoid found in medicinal cannabis. While research on CBG is still in its early stages, it has shown potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, which might be relevant to palliative care patients managing various symptoms.
Healthcare providers, like our experienced cannabis-friendly Polln doctors, can work closely with patients and their families to find the most appropriate and effective cannabinoids to offer symptom relief and improve the overall well-being of those facing end-of-life challenges.
If this Dying to Know Day, you’re thinking about incorporating medicinal cannabis into your or someone you love’s palliative care plan it is essential to seek guidance from your healthcare team. Here are some steps to include medicinal cannabis in your palliative care plan:
Whether you’re looking to include medicinal cannabis into a current or future palliative care plan, talking to a knowledgeable healthcare team is the first step. Share your interest in exploring this treatment option and ask for their guidance.
Your healthcare team can help you understand the potential benefits and risks of using medicinal cannabis for your specific symptoms and medical condition. If you’re working with a specialised medicinal cannabis doctor, like a Polln Medicinal Cannabis practitioner, then they can integrate their care with your, or a loved one’s, pre-existing healthcare team to ensure better patient outcomes.
Your healthcare team will discuss your medical history and the symptoms you are experiencing. Be open about any pain, nausea, anxiety, or other issues you are facing. If you’re planning for future care, then highlight current conditions that might need further management later on (i.e., anxiety disorders).
Discuss which form of medicinal cannabis (capsules, flower, oils etc.) might be the most appropriate for you based on your preferences and medical needs. Your medical team will consider factors like ease of administration and how quickly you need relief from your symptoms. Learn more about the different medicinal cannabis formats available here.
If you decide to start a course of medicinal cannabis, your specialist doctor will start you on a low dose and adjust it based on how you respond. It's important to share any changes in your symptoms or side effects so your dose can be adjusted as necessary.
Dying to Know Day serves as an annual reminder of how death is a natural and inevitable part of life — and that rather than ignore it or hide from it, there is a lot to be gained from having open discussions about the end of life and how we can plan for a comfortable departure.
Dying to Know Day empowers people to make informed decisions about their healthcare and encourages discussions about advance care planning and palliative care options for themselves or their loved ones. Palliative care is an important part of end-of-life planning. It provides a holistic approach to end-of-life healthcare and can help support a patient's physical, emotional, and spiritual needs.
For people considering medicinal cannabis to support a palliative care plan for themselves or a loved one to potentially help alleviate pain, manage symptoms like nausea and anxiety, and improve sleep quality. It’s important to involve healthcare professionals, like our Polln doctors, in the decision-making process so as to best support each person’s unique end-of-life needs.
Medicinal cannabis can cause nausea in some palliative care patients, but it can also relieve it. The effects of cannabis on nausea depend on the individual, the type and dose of cannabis used, and the underlying medical condition.
Some studies have found that cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy, as such, medicinal cannabis is sometimes prescribed to alleviate these symptoms in palliative care. However, medicinal cannabis, like any medication, can have side effects, and some people may experience nausea from its use. Some people may also experience nausea when they consume high doses or specific strains of cannabis.
The use of medicinal cannabis in managing palliative care pain is an area of ongoing research with evidence showing its potential benefits in end-of-life pain management for some patients.
However, it's important to note that individual responses to cannabis treatments can vary so it’s best to consult with a qualified medicinal cannabis doctor for a full assessment of your health history and goals. An experienced practitioner who is also experienced with geriatrics and palliative can also address any safety concerns you might have related to THC's side effects and potential interactions with other medications.
Since the legalisation of medicinal cannabis in Australia in 2016, more and more clinics offering medicinal cannabis treatments and prescriptions have popped up all across the country. And while more clinics means more choice for patients, more visibility, and more public recognition for medicinal cannabis being a viable treatment choice for many medical conditions, the growing number of clinics can also make it hard for patients to choose a medicinal cannabis clinic to suit their needs.
At Polln, we understand how important it is for people to find a clinic that supports them in their health goals. After all, the clinic you choose will directly impact your well-being, your patient safety, and your treatment’s effectiveness. By making an informed choice, patients can access the potential therapeutic benefits of medicinal cannabis while also receiving professional guidance from qualified medical experts.
Today, we’ll explore what to look for when choosing a medicinal cannabis clinic, teach you how to spot any red flags, explain the legal landscape surrounding medicinal cannabis access in Australia, and give you the knowledge you need to make a well-informed decision.
While not as advanced as our Canadian and American counterparts, Australia has made significant strides in legalising and regulating the use of medicinal cannabis. In 2016, the Australian government amended the Narcotic Drugs Act, allowing for the legal cultivation and production of medicinal cannabis products. This change marked a crucial turning point in providing patients with access to alternative treatment options.
However, medicinal cannabis here in Australia is still subject to fairly strict regulations. Patients must meet certain eligibility criteria and get a prescription from a qualified medical practitioner to access medicinal cannabis treatments. Learn more about accessing medicinal cannabis in Australia here.
While you can choose to visit a general practitioner (GP) to access medicinal cannabis in Australia, there are several advantages to using a specialised medicinal cannabis clinic to access advice and treatments.
While GPs play a vital role in primary healthcare and are knowledgeable about a wide range of medical conditions, medicinal cannabis clinics offer specialised expertise and a more comprehensive approach to cannabis-based therapies.
Some reasons to choose a specialised medicinal cannabis clinic include:
Some clinics like Polln also help all of their doctors become Authorised Prescribers (AP) which means that they have received approval from the Therapeutic Goods Association (TGA) to write medical cannabis prescriptions. This focused approach can save patients time and reduce potential delays in accessing treatment.
However, it's important to note that consulting with your regular GP may be a good idea as a first step. Your GP can provide important background information and referrals to medicinal cannabis clinics and work together as a team for your healthcare needs.
Before choosing a clinic, it’s a good idea to consider a range of factors to find a clinic that will provide the best care for you. Just like any healthcare option, there is a lot to consider beyond just whether or not your clinic can provide you with medication. Some things you may want to consider include.
✅ Easy Accessibility: Just like with your local doctor's surgery, it’s important to choose a close-by or online clinic that won't add commuting stress to your regime. Depending on your circumstances, you may prefer a reputable online clinic that allows you to speak to your doctor from the comfort of your home. This can be especially beneficial if you live in a remote or rural location, if you require frequent appointments or follow-ups.
✅ Highly Qualified Medical Professionals and Staff: Look for high expertise and qualifications of the medical professionals and staff at a potential clinic. It’s best to look for additional medical cannabis qualifications or experience - bonus points if doctors are Authorised Prescribers. Look for doctors who are also Authorised Prescribers (AP) who have TGA approval to write medical cannabis prescriptions — saving you time in receiving treatment.
✅ Long and comprehensive consultations: When deciding on a clinic, make sure your doctors will take the time to fully understand your health background and needs. Some patients find that anything less than a 30-minute in-person or video consultation is not thorough enough. It’s also a good idea to consider how they make you feel — a supportive and compassionate team can enhance your treatment experience.
✅ Product agnostic clinics: Product agnostic clinics, like Polln, do not have vested interests in promoting specific medicinal cannabis products. As a result, the medical professionals in these clinics can offer unbiased treatment recommendations based solely on your medical condition and needs and have access to any medicinal products available in Australia. Their primary concern is finding the most effective treatment plan for you, regardless of which licensed producer's product it involves.
It is also essential to inquire about the sourcing and quality control measures of the medicinal cannabis products offered. Legitimate clinics work with licensed producers and adhere to stringent quality standards to ensure patients receive safe and effective treatments.
✅ Easy Delivery and Treatment Access: Your clinic should provide fast and easy delivery options for your medication. Some clinics or GPs may only provide a prescription, leaving you to search for one of the scarce medicinal cannabis prescribing pharmacies to physically fill your script. By selecting an online clinic that includes delivery services, you’ll be able to access your medication quickly and easily every time.
✅ Good Clinic's Reputation and Experience: The reputation and experience of the medicinal cannabis clinic are a good indicator of the quality of care they can provide. Research potential clinics online and look for patient reviews and testimonials to gauge the experiences of others.
When choosing a medical cannabis clinic, look for one that provides a comprehensive consultation process and longer appointments.
More face-to-face time (whether it be online or in person) during the initial consultation, means that your doctor will be able to conduct a thorough assessment of your health, medical history, and the specific symptoms you are experiencing. Anything below 30 minutes for a first consultation may not give your prescribing doctor enough time to understand your conditions and symptoms and write an effective, personalised treatment plan.
The clinic should provide personalised advice on medicinal cannabis usage, including appropriate dosages and potential side effects. Follow-up appointments and the option for adjustments to your treatment plan as needed are also essential elements of a reliable medicinal cannabis clinic. These kinds of regular check-ins allow the medical team to monitor your progress and make necessary modifications to optimise treatment outcomes.
While the growing acceptance of medicinal cannabis in Australia has opened doors to many legitimate and trustworthy clinics, it has also led to the emergence of some questionable providers.
To protect your health and ensure a positive treatment experience, it is important to be aware of red flags that may suggest a medicinal cannabis clinic is unreliable or may not provide a high level of care. Here are some warning signs to watch out for:
🚩 Not speaking with an actual doctor: When choosing a medicinal cannabis clinic, make sure you always have access to speak to a doctor (whether it’s in person or over a video call). Some providers will only provide phone consultations or even text-based consultations. Make sure you are getting the quality of care you deserve.
🚩 Product-specific clinics: A responsible medicinal cannabis clinic should tailor your treatments to you. Avoid clinics that only prescribe one brand. Treatment decisions should be based on your medical needs alone, not about making profits.
🚩 One-size-fits-all approaches: Avoid clinics where doctors appear to have a one-size-fits-all method, who seem to write prescriptions for medicinal cannabis without conducting thorough assessments. Each patient is unique, and a personalised treatment plan is crucial for optimising outcomes. Reputable clinics will take the time to understand your specific medical history, symptoms, and needs before recommending any treatment.
🚩 Unrealistic treatment promises: Beware of clinics that make unrealistic promises or guarantees about the effectiveness of medicinal cannabis in curing/treating specific conditions. While medicinal cannabis has shown therapeutic potential for certain conditions, it is not a miracle cure for all health problems.
🚩 Slow or delayed medication delivery: Some medicinal cannabis providers might not be set up to quickly dispense and deliver your medication. While this might not be a problem for some people, if you are living with chronic pain or a condition that requires timely treatments you may want to ensure that you choose a clinic with end-to-end consultation and expedited medication delivery.
🚩 Lack of transparency or vague information: Reputable medicinal cannabis clinics prioritise transparency and medical cannabis education with their patients. If you find a clinic that seems evasive or avoids answering your questions or doesn’t have an emphasis on patient education, it could be a sign of potential issues.
🚩 Lack of referrals or positive patient reviews: A credible medicinal cannabis clinic should have a track record of positive patient experiences. Look for feedback from previous patients about their encounters with the clinic. If you find a clinic with consistently negative reviews or a lack of positive feedback, it may be best to explore other options.
🚩 Unsympathetic doctors: A trustworthy medicinal cannabis clinic should have medical professionals who genuinely care about their patient's well-being and prioritise individualised care. Be cautious if you encounter doctors who seem disinterested, rushed, or lack empathy during consultations.
Like any healthcare choice, choosing the right medicinal cannabis clinic for your needs is a big decision that requires careful consideration. To ensure that you make an informed decision and find a clinic that best suits your needs, here are some essential tips to guide you through the selection process:
By following these tips, you can navigate the process of choosing a medicinal cannabis clinic with confidence and make an informed decision that aligns with your health needs and treatment goals. Your health is important, so take the time to find a reputable medicinal cannabis clinic that will support you and your health goals now and in the future.
The process of choosing a medicinal cannabis clinic is an important decision for many patients in Australia. By understanding the legal landscape, evaluating crucial factors, and being aware of both green and red flags, you can make an informed decision that supports your health needs and ensures a safe, effective, and compassionate medicinal cannabis treatment experience.
Remember that as everyone's medical background, health goals, and experiences with medicinal cannabis will vary, and it is essential to select a clinic that will take the time to conduct a full medical evaluation and find the right treatment schedule for you. Armed with the knowledge and insights provided in this article, we hope you can prioritise your well-being and seek a reputable, caring clinic, like Polln, that will put your well-being first.
Chronic pain is a complex and challenging condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Managing chronic pain can be difficult for both patients and healthcare providers, especially when dealing with other conditions and potential interactions between different pain medications.
In recent years, medicinal cannabis has emerged as a potential natural alternative for chronic pain management, offering promising results in providing pain relief. However, using medicinal cannabis alongside other pain medications requires careful consideration and open communication with healthcare providers to ensure safe and effective pain management.
Let’s explore the potential benefits and risks of using medicinal cannabis with other pain medications, and discuss how to safely incorporate medicinal cannabis into your pain management plan.
The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines chronic pain as pain that lasts for more than 12 weeks. Unlike acute (short-term) pain, chronic pain can persist even after the initial issue is treated. Chronic pain is complex and can be caused and influenced by many factors, including injury, illness, and underlying medical conditions.
Chronic pain affects about 20% of adults worldwide. For people with chronic pain, it’s typical for them to experience more than one type, for example, people may have a chronic pain condition like fibromyalgia and chronic back pain at the same time.
In addition to feeling the physical effects of pain, many chronic pain patients will have their symptoms amplified or influenced by their mental health. Over 67% of people with chronic pain also live with a mental health issue, such as major depressive disorder or generalised anxiety disorder.
If you’re looking to manage your chronic pain, it can be difficult to know where to start, which medications to use, or which medications shouldn’t mix. Chronic pain is complex and difficult to manage, for patients and healthcare providers alike. Some reasons why people might find it hard to manage chronic pain include:
Due to the complicated nature of chronic pain, a comprehensive approach is often required to manage the condition effectively. This may involve a combination of medical treatments, physical therapy, psychological support, lifestyle modifications, and patient education.
At Polln, our individualised care and patient-centred approach help us address the unique challenges each person faces when dealing with chronic pain. Make a booking at our online clinic today to learn more about your chronic pain treatment options.
There are several types of pain medications used to manage chronic pain which work in different ways to relieve pain. Before starting any course of pain medication, it’s important to talk to your doctor — even if you’re taking over-the-counter products. Here are some common types of pain medications for chronic pain:
Before deciding to take any of the medications described above, it’s important for every patient with chronic pain to first talk with their healthcare provider to decide on the most appropriate pain management approach.
In some cases, a combination of different medications or treatments might be the best option to achieve pain relief and minimise potential side effects and risks. Additionally, non-pharmacological treatments, such as physical therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and lifestyle modifications, can be included in the overall pain management plan.
Medicinal cannabis may work for chronic pain management through its interactions with the body's endocannabinoid system, which regulates various physiological functions, including pain perception. The cannabis plant contains cannabinoids such as CBD and THC, responsible for its potential therapeutic effects on pain.
Medicinal cannabis has been shown to provide an effective and relatively safe chronic pain management treatment, especially when compared with traditional opioid-based therapies. Medicinal cannabis contains active components called cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD. These cannabinoids work in our body by interacting with specific receptors called endocannabinoid receptors. The two main receptors are CB1 and CB2. When THC and CBD bind to these receptors, they can provide relief from pain. Learn more about cannabinoids and how they interact with the human body here.
This interaction affects the release of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the body) and dampens the transmission of pain signals, providing pain-relieving effects. Additionally, medicinal cannabis possesses anti-inflammatory properties, further adding to its effectiveness as a treatment for chronic pain.
Individuals considering medicinal cannabis for chronic pain should always consult with knowledgeable healthcare professionals to make informed decisions about its use in their specific cases.
Medicinal cannabis, containing cannabinoids like CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), has the potential to interact with other pain medications commonly used alongside chronic pain management. These interactions can affect the way medications are metabolised and how they work in the body. Here's an overview of how medicinal cannabis may potentially interact with some of these medications:
However, one recent study suggests that cannabinoids could interfere with the metabolism of NSAIDs in the body potentially leading to altered levels of the NSAIDs in the bloodstream, affecting their effectiveness. However, more research is needed to confirm this.
When CBD inhibits this enzyme, it can cause the levels of certain antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics, beta-blockers, and opioids, to increase in the bloodstream. This could potentially lead to stronger effects or an increased risk of side effects from these medications.
This doesn’t mean patients can’t take antidepressants and medicinal cannabis — it does mean, however, that people taking antidepressants and considering using medicinal cannabis should discuss potential interactions with their healthcare providers, like one of our Polln doctors, to ensure safe and effective use of both medications.
It's important to remember that the above list is not exhaustive and individual responses to these combinations of medications can vary. Whenever you start a new course of medication, it’s important to talk to your doctor first. New medications require professional guidance to ensure a safe and effective pain management plan.
Taking medicinal cannabis safely alongside other medications requires careful consideration and open communication with your doctor. Here are some guidelines to follow for safe and effective use of medicinal cannabis alongside other medications:
Honesty and open communication with healthcare providers are vital for a safe and effective pain management plan. Always follow medical advice, report any changes in your condition, and prioritise your well-being throughout your treatment journey.
Chronic pain is a complex condition that affects many people. Managing it can be challenging due to balancing multiple medications, understanding your body’s unique responses, and weighing potential risks. Medicinal cannabis, with its interactions with the body's endocannabinoid system, has shown promise as an alternative therapy for chronic pain. However, its interactions with other medications require careful consideration. Make sure you work closely with experienced healthcare providers who understand the complexities of medicinal cannabis to personalise your pain management plan. Remember: if in doubt, talk it out. Ensuring open communication with your doctor before combining medications can help ensure you receive safe and effective treatment.
Whether you live with it or not, everyone should be aware of chronic pain. Chronic pain is a daily struggle for millions of people around the world, so if you’re not living with it, chances are someone you know or care about will be.
1 in 5 Australians over 45 years old are currently living with chronic pain — that’s over 3.6 million people! Chronic pain refers to persistent discomfort that lasts for weeks, months, or even years, and it can be caused by various medical conditions or injuries.
Unfortunately, chronic pain is not just a physical ailment — it can also take a significant toll on your emotional well-being, social life, and overall quality of life. Yet, there is still widespread misunderstanding of chronic pain, with 1 in 2 sufferers experiencing stigma because of their condition.
The lack of validation and recognition of this challenging condition by the government, employers and the general public pushed advocates, healthcare professionals, and organisations to come together to create National Pain Week.
Running from 24-30 July in 2023, National Pain Week is an annual event that raises awareness about chronic pain, promotes better understanding, and provides support to those affected by this complex and challenging health problem.
As National Pain Week gains momentum, so too can public awareness of new treatments for chronic pain, including medicinal cannabis which has shown to be an effective pain management tool for some patients with less side effects than many other common analgesic medications.
For National Pain Week this year, Polln will explore the significance of National Pain Week, help our readers understand what chronic pain is and why it matters, and explain some potential treatments for chronic pain that could help millions of people across Australia.
Let’s get the conversation started.
Chronic pain is characterised by pain that lasts for an extended period, usually beyond three to six months, or beyond the time expected for the resolution of an injury or illness. Unlike acute (short-term) pain, which has a protective mechanism warning us of physical harm, chronic pain continues long after the initial cause has stopped, leading to a complex — and frustrating — medical condition that can be difficult to treat.
Chronic pain affects people of all ages, backgrounds, and walks of life. It is estimated that around 20% of Australian adults have chronic pain, making it a significant public health concern that deserves more dedicated healthcare, more research, and more public awareness.
No one issue or accident causes chronic pain. Instead, chronic pain can have various underlying causes, from old injuries to recently diagnosed health conditions. Chronic pain often results from a complex interplay of physiological, psychological, and environmental factors, meaning that when chronic pain strikes, doctors should take the time to fully investigate all possible causes in influencing factors (like stress or fatigue).
Chronic pain is so much more than a physical problem — it can significantly impact all areas of a patient's life, including their social lives, mental health, sexual wellbeing and a patient’s overall quality of life.
Living with chronic pain can lead to a cycle of decreased mobility, limited activities, and less social interactions, which, in turn, can contribute to feelings of isolation, anxiety, and depression. Additionally, chronic pain can get in the way of productivity, affect job performance, and strain personal relationships.
The constant struggle to manage pain can prevent people from being able to fully participate in daily activities they once enjoyed — and even sleep can be affected, further worsening the toll chronic pain can take on mental health.
Conventional approaches to chronic pain management often include a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological interventions. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and muscle relaxants are commonly prescribed to alleviate pain, but these medications may come with side effects and the risk of dependency.
Natural treatments for chronic pain include medicinal cannabis, acupuncture, mind-body techniques, like meditation and mindfulness, and herbal supplements, such as turmeric and ginger.
Physical therapy and rehabilitation programs can also help improve function and reduce pain, while cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) can help patients develop coping strategies and improve their psychological well-being.
Many chronic pain patients may find relief, both in terms of their pain management and improved sleep, from medicinal cannabis treatments. Medicinal cannabis, also known as “medical marijuana” (learn more about the importance of cannabis language here), has gained significant attention in recent years for its potential therapeutic benefits in managing chronic pain.
Research has shown that medicinal cannabis can provide significant relief against chronic pain. Additionally, medicinal cannabis may be a good option for some people who have found conventional treatments to be ineffective or want to avoid side effects or the potential for opioid addiction.
One study showed that patients who were prescribed medicinal cannabis were able to manage their chronic pain and reduce their opioid use by 64%. Better yet, they were able to improve their overall quality of life and reduce their medication side effects. Seeing as one of the main treatments to chronic pain are opioids, medicinal cannabis provides a hopeful, natural alternative that is safer and effective.
As with any other medication, there are potential side effects associated with medicinal cannabis. Short-term side effects related to THC can sometimes include anxiety, panic, disorientation or changes to memory and attention. Patients with psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are typically recommended not to start a course of medicinal cannabis as it may worsen condition symptoms.
If you’re experiencing chronic pain and are interested in exploring natural therapies such as medicinal cannabis, speak to an experienced cannabis clinician who can help you find a treatment that works for you.
National Pain Week started as an annual event with a mission to raise awareness about the prevalence and impact of chronic pain on individuals worldwide. This initiative was created by the collective efforts of patient advocacy groups, healthcare professionals, and organisations dedicated to supporting those living with chronic pain conditions.
Why does National Pain Week matter? Because by taking the time to recognise chronic pain, we can foster greater understanding and empathy, and destigmatize this challenging condition for chronic pain sufferers worldwide.
The goals of National Pain Week include:
During National Pain Week, keep an eye out for various events and campaigns organised by local communities, healthcare providers, and advocacy groups. If you want to get involved, try get in touch with:
National Pain Week is an important event in our annual calendar, shedding light on the global issue of chronic pain and its profound impact on millions of individuals worldwide. By bringing together patient advocacy groups, healthcare professionals, and organisations, it strives to raise awareness, promote understanding, and empower those affected by chronic pain.
This National Pain Week, think about your own ability to foster empathy and support for chronic pain sufferers while also advocating for improved care, research funding, and access to innovative treatments.
As we come together to rethink chronic pain, let’s also explore more options for ongoing pain management, and enhancing the quality of life without extensive side-effects. Whether you’re directly affected by chronic pain or not, your involvement in National Pain Week can make a big difference. Every conversation and act of support contributes to the greater understanding and compassion needed for individuals battling chronic pain every day.
Make a difference — share this article or talk to someone about chronic pain today.
Living with chronic pain can be an incredibly challenging experience, both physically and emotionally. Chronic pain is more than just a physical ailment; it is often an invisible illness that impacts everything from your physical health, to your emotional wellbeing and your ability to be present in your day to day life. The constant discomfort, fatigue, and limitations it imposes can lead to feelings of frustration, helplessness, and even isolation.
The connection between chronic pain and mental health is complex. Chronic pain can exacerbate existing mental health conditions, such as anxiety and depression, or it can be a trigger for the development of these conditions in previously healthy people. The perpetual stress and emotional toll of dealing with pain can lead to emotional instability, difficulty concentrating, and a reduced sense of pleasure or purpose in daily life.
As you navigate your diagnosis and journey, please remember that seeking support is crucial. Reaching out to others who understand your struggles can make a significant difference. Sharing your feelings and experiences can help in alleviating feelings of isolation and help foster an overall sense of belonging. Engaging in hobbies and activities that bring you joy and a sense of purpose can also be beneficial in enhancing your mental health, even if they are done a bit slower than before.
Most importantly, practising self-compassion is vital. Living with chronic pain can feel defeating and may lead to feelings of guilt or self-blame. Remember that you are doing the best you can, you can only take things one step at a time. This is your journey and you cannot compare yourself to anyone else, they are on their own timeline. Be kind to yourself, acknowledge your accomplishments, no matter how small, and celebrate your resilience in the face of adversity.
Take care of yourself and remember that healing takes time. There is hope for better days ahead.
Getting the right amount of sleep is crucial for good health and wellbeing, with poor quality sleep being associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, mental health conditions, obesity, and death1.
Despite this, over half of Australians report experiencing sleep difficulties2– including having trouble falling asleep and staying asleep as well as waking up too early and not being able to get back to sleep – three or more times a week. And nearly half of all Australian adults report regularly experiencing at least 2 sleep-related problems1.
These sleep problems can include:
It’s no wonder, then, that patients in Australia are seeking therapeutic and other solutions for their sleep difficulties.
Medicinal cannabis is just one of a number of treatments that are prescribed to treat the symptoms of other sleep disorders like insomnia, restless leg syndrome and more.
Cannabis has been used in numerous cultures for its potential healing properties throughout human history, with the first documented case of its use dating back to 2800 BC3.
Since then, therapeutic indications of cannabis have been mentioned in the texts of the Indian Hindus, Assyrians, Greeks and Romans. All of which report cannabis to relieve pain and treat a vast array of different health problems: including arthritis, depression, amenorrhea, inflammation, lack of appetite, asthma and insomnia.
Today, medicinal cannabis is prescribed to treat a range of chronic health conditions in Australia, the most common being mental health, chronic pain, and sleep conditions4. Some of the sleep conditions medicinal cannabis has been prescribed to treat include:
Medicinal cannabis may also be prescribed to treat sleep issues caused by other chronic conditions, such as chronic pain, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, multiple sclerosis and more. For example, studies have found that medicinal cannabis may have a positive effect on maintaining sleep throughout the night in chronic pain patients5.
Of the more than 100 phytocannabinoids naturally found within cannabis, THC is most commonly used and prescribed for its ability to induce sleep. This is because THC works directly with the body’s endocannabinoid system, which is responsible for regulating numerous bodily functions, including sleep. THC binds directly with the CB1 receptors in the central nervous system, which can yield an effect on sleep, relaxation, and more6.
Cannabinol, or CBN, is a less well-known cannabinoid which appears to have powerful sedative effects7, which may be enhanced when it’s combined with THC. A number of cannabis terpenes – including caryophyllene, myrcene, linalool, pinene and terpinolene – are also known to have sedating and stress-relieving effects which aid sleep.
The right combination of cannabinoids, terpenes and other cannabis compounds in a strain or type of cannabis treatment can have a synergistically powerful effect on sleep and other symptoms. This is known as the entourage effect.
In a 2022 study of patients taking medicinal cannabis to improve sleep quality in Canada, it was found that 39% of patients were able to reduce or completely discontinue a prescription medication indicated for sleep, while 71% reported a subjective improvement in their sleep or related condition6.
When it comes to getting a good night’s sleep, the amount of hours you are getting makes up only one part of the equation.
Over the course of the night, your entire sleep is made up of several rounds of what is known as the sleep cycle, which has four stages8. On a typical night, a person goes through four to six sleep cycles, which last for approximately 90 minutes each.
The four sleep stages in a sleep cycle include:
When you first fall asleep and the body has not fully relaxed. Your body and brain activities start to slow with periods of brief movements. Stage 1 sleep normally lasts just one to seven minutes.
When your body enters a more relaxed state, characterised by a drop in temperature, relaxed muscles, slowed breathing and slowed heart rate. Stage 2 sleep can last for 10 to 25 minutes during the first sleep cycle, and each N2 stage can become longer during the night.
When your heart rate, breathing rate and body relaxes even further, and your brain produces delta waves. Stage 3 sleep is critical for bodily recovery and growth, as well as immunity and other key bodily functions. You spend the most time in deep sleep during the first half of the night.
When your brain activity picks up, nearing levels seen when you are awake. At the same time, your body experiences a temporary paralysis of the muscles, with two exceptions: the eyes and the muscles that control breathing. Even though the eyes are closed, they can be seen moving quickly.
It is believed to be essential to cognitive functions like memory, and it is during this stage that we experience vivid dreams. In total, REM stages make up around 25% of sleep in adults. According to Dr. Melissa Catanzarite (MBBS) ‘REM also preserves memories, which is why a reduction in REM sleep for an extended period of time is associated with early onset cognitive decline, dementia and more. Good sleep now is an investment into the future you.’
Studies have shown that at lower doses, THC can reduce sleep onset latency and contribute to greater ease of falling asleep, increased deep or slow-wave sleep and increased total sleep time. At higher doses, THC-predominant cannabis may cause a reduction in total rapid eye movement sleep and REM density.
The extent to which cannabis affects REM sleep therefore depends on the dose and frequency of cannabis consumption, as well as the amount of THC being consumed.
In one 2008 study, cannabis strains with higher levels of THC were found to suppress the amount of REM sleep participants were getting9. Because it is vital for healthy cognitive and immune functioning, it’s important to consider this effect before taking any cannabinoid treatments for sleep, particularly those high in THC.
A reduction in REM sleep may be beneficial in the short term for patients who would benefit from more time spent in the deep, restorative sleep stage, or for patients who experience PTSD-induced nightmares. More research is needed to understand how cannabis affects sleep cycles over time.
Sleep disorders are among the three most common types of conditions4 medicinal cannabis is prescribed to treat in Australia, alongside chronic pain and mental health conditions. Here are some of the conditions medicinal cannabis may be effective at treating:
Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterised by an inability to fall asleep or stay asleep. Insomnia is by far the most common sleep disorder that medicinal cannabis is prescribed to treat in Australia4.
Medicinal cannabis has been found to be well tolerated and to improve insomnia symptoms and sleep quality in individuals with chronic insomnia symptoms9. Cannabis treatments for insomnia may also assist patients in discontinuing prescription medications indicated for sleep6. This may appeal to patients experiencing strong or unwanted side effects – such as dizziness, prolonged drowsiness, headaches and more – from their conventional prescription sleeping pills.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic disorder characterised by an urge to move the legs. This urge is often accompanied by pain or other uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. RLS may occur or worsen during rest, particularly at night, and temporarily improves with activity. RLS is considered both a sleep disorder and a movement disorder, because the symptoms are triggered by resting and attempting to sleep.
Because RLS is caused by an excessive release of dopamine, cannabis may be an effective treatment thanks to its capacity to reduce dopamine synthesis in the body, helping to restore the activity in the basal ganglia to normal levels. The basal ganglia is a part of the brain that uses dopamine to help control muscle activity and movement.
While further medical research and clinical trials are needed, there have been multiple promising patient reports of ‘remarkable and total remission of RLS symptoms following cannabis use10.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep–wake cycles. A person with narcolepsy experiences overwhelming daytime drowsiness and, in severe cases, falls asleep involuntarily several times every day.
While there are no clinical studies of medicinal cannabis for the treatment of narcolepsy and related conditions like idiopathic hypersomnia, studies in animals11 suggest they may offer a potential treatment option.
Excessive drowsiness has been shown to be reduced following CBD administration in rats with narcoleptic symptoms, while REM sleep has been shown to be reduced following THC use. This effect is similar to the effect of sodium oxybate, an effective treatment for type 1 narcolepsy. It’s possible then that the combined REM-suppressing effect of THC and the wake-promoting effect of CBD could be harnessed to treat patients with narcolepsy, but more research is needed in this area.
While medicinal cannabis that has been prescribed by a qualified health professional is known to be generally well tolerated at recommended dosages, cannabis does not work for everyone and can cause unwanted side effects in some patients. Always follow your doctor’s guidance when using cannabis to treat the symptoms of a sleep disorder or any other condition.
Medicinal cannabis is a highly personalised treatment. What works best for you may differ from what works for another patient, even if you share the same condition. When deciding on an appropriate medicinal cannabis treatment to prescribe for sleep disturbances, like insomnia, your doctor will consider:
One 2015 study of cannabis for pain relief and sleep found that cannabis strains with equal ratios of THC to CBD had the most positive effect on sleep12. This is partly because CBD may be able to mitigate some of the negative effects associated with higher THC formulations, such as anxiety. Medicinal cannabis treatments with sleep-inducing terpenes, such as linalool, myrcene, and caryophyllene, may also be prescribed to promote good sleep hygiene and assist with difficulty sleeping.
The type of medical cannabis prescribed and the method required to take it will depend on your individual needs as a patient. If you have trouble falling asleep, a fast-acting method – such as inhalation – may be beneficial.
If you have trouble staying asleep, a longer-lasting medicinal cannabis treatment, such as an oil, wafer or tincture, may work best for you. For some patients, a combination of both may work best.
Although indica-dominant strains have historically been associated with relaxing, sedating effects, today’s research suggests that the cannabinoid ratio (i.e. the ratio of THC to CBD) and terpene content has a greater influence on its effects on the user or patient. That’s why it’s always best to explore medical cannabis treatments with an experienced cannabis clinician who can prescribe treatments based on your individual needs.
Like any medication, medical cannabis can come with its own risks and side effects which will vary depending on the type and amount of treatment, and individual factors like tolerance, endocannabinoid system function and sensitivity.
Some of the potential risks and side effects associated with using medical cannabis as a sleep aid include:
When it comes to starting any medical cannabis treatment, finding the right dosing and titration is key to maximising therapeutic benefit without unwanted side effects.
To mitigate the potential risk and side effects of medicinal cannabis treatments for sleep, it’s important to consult with an experienced cannabis clinician who can help you find a treatment plan that works for you.
To access medicinal cannabis in Australia, you need to speak with a qualified doctor who understands the intricacies of medical cannabis treatments. According to the TGA, to be eligible for medicinal cannabis treatments, you must have:
When it comes to sleep disorders, conventional treatments may include any combination of pharmacological, lifestyle, herbal or other treatments that are commonly used to treat sleep issues. So, if you have had chronic sleep issues for 3 months or more and you are not satisfied with your current or past treatments, you may be eligible for medicinal cannabis access.
Specialised medicinal cannabis clinics like Polln can pair you with an expert Cannabis Clinician to review your condition and health goals to see if medicinal cannabis is right for you.
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in Australia.
Sleep is the single most significant component of our self care. Sleep is the real miracle drug; it promotes healing, emotional stability and even weight loss. Without sleep we struggle to have meaningful interactions with those we love, our creativity is dampened or ceases altogether and we are at more risk for significant health disorders.
Bedtime is the most crucial part of your day and needs to be managed as such. This includes creating a regular bedtime routine that incorporates no screen time for a minimum of one hour prior to bed, going to bed and waking at the same time every day and ensuring there are no distractions while you sleep.
A person can take all of the medications, supplements and yoga classes in the world and their health will not improve until they prioritise sleep.
Is cannabis addictive? When starting a new medication, such as medicinal cannabis, it's natural to be curious about its potential effects. Even with plant-based medicines, it’s important to learn about the safety aspects of your treatment plan, including your new medicine’s addictive potential.
Read on to understand cannabis addiction (sometimes called ‘weed addiction’ or ‘marijuana addiction’ - learn more about the language of cannabis here), how cannabis addiction happens, and how to safely introduce or maintain medicinal cannabis into your treatment regime.
While most patients won’t become addicted to cannabis, cannabis can be addictive, even when it is prescribed for a medical reason. The likelihood of an addiction occurring or the extent of an addiction, depends on many factors, including genetic predisposition, cannabis potency, and individual susceptibility.
Research suggests that around 9% of cannabis users may develop an addiction1. So, even if you’re taking medicinal cannabis, there is still the potential for addiction. However, when taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, patients can better understand their predisposition for addiction and take steps to avoid it.
Addiction is a complex condition that involves a compulsive pattern of drug use despite negative consequences2. Cannabis addiction can be mild or severe, with varying effects on a person’s psychological and physical wellbeing. If you think you might be struggling with cannabis addiction, or are starting to notice unhealthy changes in your cannabis use, start an honest conversation with your doctor about how to manage it.
While cannabis addiction is not likely, it is possible. Cannabis can become addictive because its active compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activates the brain’s reward system releasing dopamine3.
When you take cannabis regularly, your brain may reinforce and strengthen the connection between the rewarding stimulus (cannabis) and the positive feelings experienced, leading the brain's reward system to become dysregulated.
In these cases, the over-activation of the reward system can cause changes where the brain needs more THC to achieve the same pleasure response. This phenomenon, known as increased tolerance, can contribute to addictive patterns as people may continue to take more THC to chase the same sensation of pleasure.
Once addicted, people may develop signs of cannabis addiction4, including cravings, cannabis withdrawal symptoms, and difficulty managing the amount of frequency of their cannabis use.
Physical dependence occurs when your body adapts to a medication or substance and experiences withdrawal symptoms when you stop or reduce the amount you take.
Not everyone who takes medicinal cannabis will become physically dependent, however, it can sometimes occur with regular or prolonged use, especially at higher doses5. Like addiction, many factors may lead to physical dependence including your unique metabolism and physiology.
When external cannabinoids, like medical cannabis, interact with the body’s cannabinoid receptors, they affect the body’s physiological functions. With extensive or extended use, cannabis can affect various neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain which can affect our mood, appetite, and sleep patterns. Learn more about cannabinoids here.
Because the body can adapt to high levels of external cannabinoids in the body, a withdrawal or sudden reduction in cannabis use can lead to a range of physical symptoms6 including:
If you stop taking medical cannabis suddenly, you may notice physical symptoms after a few days which may last for several weeks. It’s important to remember that not everyone will experience the same symptoms with the same severity.
In general, cannabis does not typically produce strong physical dependence7, unlike some other common medicines, including antidepressants, Corticosteroids, or opioids. If you are worried about developing a physical dependence, we recommend working closely with healthcare professionals, like our Polln specialists, for guidance around your cannabis use.
As the mind adapts to the presence of cannabinoids, suddenly stopping or reducing your cannabis intake may result in psychological symptoms8. These symptoms can include:
Not everyone who uses cannabis will experience these psychological symptoms while reducing or stopping their cannabis use. For those that do experience psychological symptoms, they typically begin a few days after decreasing or stopping cannabis and last several weeks.
Some people may develop a psychological dependence on cannabis to feel pleasure or alleviate psychological distress and discomfort. If you experience difficulty controlling or stopping your cannabis use, then your psychological dependence on cannabis may turn into an addiction.
Our Polln doctors can help patients navigate their concerns around psychological dependence on cannabis and put preventive measures in place to help patients protect their mental wellbeing.
Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) is a diagnosable mental health condition recognised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)9 due to its potential to cause significant impairment or distress.
The DSM-5 defines CUD as a pattern of cannabis use that leads to clinically significant problems. To be diagnosed as having a CUD, your doctor or mental health specialist will evaluate your symptoms against CUD-specific criteria.
Cannabis use disorder is relatively common, particularly among people who use large amounts of cannabis regularly.
Around 9% of people who use cannabis may develop a cannabis use disorder. However, the percentage of people who develop CUD varies depending on various factors such as frequency and intensity of cannabis use, individual susceptibility, and other environmental and genetic factors.
A 2022 study published in the Drug Alcohol Review of Australians showed that CUD in medical cannabis users was comparable to recreational users10.
Taking a break from medicinal cannabis can potentially reduce the risk of developing cannabis use disorder, particularly if the break helps you maintain control over your cannabis use. By discontinuing or reducing cannabis use, you may also avoid potential negative effects associated with regular and heavy consumption.
While it’s not possible to completely avoid cannabis use disorder, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk and promote a healthy relationship with medicinal cannabis.
Consulting with a knowledgeable doctor about medicinal cannabis use can be highly beneficial in reducing the risk of developing a cannabis use problem.
When starting a course of medicinal cannabis, your doctor should provide you with:
If you’re looking to get started with medicinal cannabis, or want to help a loved one explore medicinal cannabis options, Polln has a team of expert specialists available to discuss your treatment needs and ways to safely start a program of plant-based treatment.
By involving a doctor in your medicinal cannabis journey, you can benefit from their expertise, personalised care, and ongoing support, all of which can reduce the risk of developing a CUD.
To meet the diagnostic criteria for CUD, a person must show a problematic pattern of cannabis use that leads to significant impairment or distress, with at least two of the following symptoms within a 12-month period11:
The severity of CUD is determined by the number of symptoms present:
If you think that you might have a cannabis addiction, reach out to a health professional for an official diagnosis and support. There are many helpful treatment options available, including counselling and behavioural therapies.
Not everyone who uses cannabis will experience withdrawal symptoms. As with physical and psychological dependence, the risk of developing withdrawal symptoms after taking medicinal cannabis depends on the dosage, frequency, and length of time taking this medication.
While withdrawal symptoms for cannabis are typically mild for most people, a recent study into cannabis withdrawal showed that the most frequently reported symptoms include irritability, anxiety, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping.
Overall, people reported a range of symptoms during cannabis withdrawal including:
It is important to remember that the severity of withdrawal symptoms is not the same for everyone. Some people may experience very mild withdrawal symptoms (like you might experience when quitting caffeine) while others may experience more severe symptoms.
It's important to understand that addiction is not solely determined by the substance itself. Factors such as your environmental surroundings, genetic predisposition, individual susceptibility, psychological background, and social influences can also significantly contribute to the risk of addiction.
Some factors that influence the likelihood of developing cannabis use disorder include:
CUD is more common in people who start using cannabis at a young age. A study published in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence found that the risk of developing CUD was 4-7 times higher in people who started using cannabis before the age of 18 than in people who started using cannabis after the age of 2512.
Genetics can play a role in the development of cannabis use disorder. Research suggests that some people may be more genetically predisposed to developing problematic cannabis use compared to others13.
These genetic factors can influence how people respond to the effects of cannabis, regulate their brain's reward system, and process substances. For example, variations in genes involved in the endocannabinoid system, such as the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) gene, have been associated with an increased risk of cannabis dependence.
Cannabis Use Disorder can be associated with mental health conditions, suggesting a complex relationship between cannabis use and mental wellbeing. While a direct link is difficult to prove, research shows that people with pre-existing mental health disorders may be more susceptible to developing problematic cannabis use.
People with conditions such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia may have a heightened vulnerability to CUD14. This two-way relationship suggests that cannabis use can worsen the symptoms of mental health disorders, while people with these disorders may self-medicate with cannabis to lessen their symptoms.
Having an addiction to another substance can significantly increase the chance of developing cannabis use disorder15. The co-occurrence of substance addiction and CUD can lead to more severe and persistent cannabis use problems, worsening physical and mental health problems, and impaired cognitive function.
High-potency cannabis, with elevated levels of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), has been linked to an increased likelihood of developing CUD16. Stronger psychoactive effects of potent cannabis may contribute to higher tolerance, physical and psychological dependence, and addiction.
The intensity of psychoactive effects can be influenced by cannabis potency. Higher potency cannabis can lead to increased intoxication, cognitive impairment, and increased risk-taking behaviour, which can all contribute to problematic cannabis use.
There are a number of treatment options available for CUD. The most effective treatment approach is typically a combination of medication and therapy. A common therapy for CUD, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), has been known to help people identify and change their thoughts and behaviours that contribute to their cannabis use.
In addition to medication and therapy, it’s important to talk to your prescribing doctor. If you’re taking more than prescribed or find that you’re struggling with physical or psychological dependence, then they can help you manage your cannabis use and adjust your treatment plan.
Like any new medication, it’s important to understand its addictive potential before starting a course of treatment. While most patients will not become addicted to medicinal cannabis, it’s important to take the time to understand your personal risks for addiction, including your mental health and genetic factors, to make an informed decision. By starting your medicinal cannabis journey with the support of a specialised healthcare team, like our Polln doctors, you can lessen your cannabis addiction risk while improving your overall wellbeing.
THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol) are two of the most common cannabinoids found in cannabis. THC is psychoactive and produces the "high" associated with cannabis use, while CBD is non-psychoactive and does not cause intoxication. THC has pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, and appetite-stimulating effects. CBD has anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and neuroprotective properties.
CBD (cannabidiol) is not considered addictive. CBD does not produce the psychoactive effects typically associated with THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. It interacts with different receptors in the body and does not have the same potential for abuse or dependence as THC.
The specific threshold for heavy use may depend on factors such as individual tolerance, frequency of use, duration of use, and the potency of the cannabis products being used. That being said, the definition of heavy cannabis use generally refers to the frequent and substantial use of cannabis, enough that a person would feel intoxicated daily.
Some people may develop dependence relatively quickly, while others may not become dependent on cannabis after extended use. The time it takes to develop dependence, or whether you develop cannabis dependence, is dependent on many factors, including frequency of use, quantity consumed, the potency of the cannabis, individual physiology, and genetic factors.
If you think you are experiencing any signs of cannabis addiction or dependence, or if cannabis is having a negative impact on your life in any way, please consider reaching out to your prescribing doctor to discuss strategies to move forward. These strategies may include:
Talking to your doctor about medical cannabis can be intimidating. Whether you want to find out if cannabis can be used alongside other medications or if you want to manage a new condition, it can be hard to know how and when to bring up the topic of plant medicine with your GP — especially in Australia where medicinal cannabis isn’t widely accepted in conventional medicine.
Despite many studies showing the benefits of cannabis for a range of health conditions, some GPs aren’t comfortable discussing medicinal cannabis with patients. Even if your GP supports natural therapies, they might not have enough experience with medicinal cannabis to provide advice or refer you to a medical cannabis clinic like Polln.
Fortunately, a little bit of conversation preparation can help a lot. By speaking to your doctor about medicinal cannabis, you can arm yourself with the information you need to understand all options for your condition management. Today, we will explore the current state of medical cannabis in Australia and discuss the importance of open communication with doctors when it comes to starting a course of medical cannabis.
Despite the growing acceptance of medical cannabis worldwide, some Australian patients face challenges in accessing the treatments they need through traditional healthcare channels. This can stem from a general lack of awareness and understanding of cannabis or prejudices about cannabis treatments. Learn more about who can prescribe medicinal cannabis in Australia here.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), Australia's regulatory body for medicines, has established a framework that governs the prescribing and use of medicinal cannabis in Australia. Currently, the TGA has approved the use of medical cannabis (MC) for the treatment of over 130 conditions. The most common of which include:
There are many conditions approved for medical cannabis treatment, however, doctors can only suggest medicinal cannabis as a primary or adjunct treatment for a condition so long as the patient meets other eligibility requirements and can provide evidence.
According to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), medical cannabis can only be prescribed if you have a chronic medical condition that has lasted for 3+ months and have tried other treatments without success. Learn more about accessing medicinal cannabis treatments in Australia here.
In rare cases, doctors might actively avoid discussing, prescribing, or referring patients to medical cannabis clinics, even when medical cannabis could be an acceptable treatment option.
Even if you’re unsure about how your GP thinks about medicinal cannabis, it’s important to speak up about your treatment choices. By starting more conversations with our doctors about our healthcare choices, we can advocate for ourselves and promote a patient-centred approach to medicine.
Since it became legal for any medical practitioner to prescribe medicinal cannabis in Australia in 2016, the attitudes toward medical cannabis have been slowly changing. Despite an increase in positive sentiments around medicinal cannabis since 2017, there is still a way to go before widespread acceptance and understanding of cannabis in the medical community.
A survey of over 500 Australian GPs between November 2021 and February 2022 found that while many patients are interested in learning more about medicinal cannabis, GPs need more support:
GPs play a crucial role in every healthcare team, particularly if they are familiar faces or trusted individuals responsible for our healthcare decisions. Yet, it's common for patients to unintentionally assume a passive role in healthcare communications, neglecting the fact that appointments should be meaningful conversations where we actively advocate for our interests and seek necessary input.
By openly discussing medical cannabis you can educate your doctors about your conditions, symptoms, and the potential benefits you have researched or heard about from other patients.
It’s important to enter into these conversations respectfully, recognising that your doctors may have concerns about prescribing medical cannabis due to its historical stigma and limited research in certain areas.
Open communication allows you to advocate for yourself, ensuring that your voice is heard and your treatment preferences are considered. By sharing your personal experiences, relevant research, and information about successful medical cannabis treatments in similar cases, you can challenge any prejudices or misconceptions held by your doctors.
Before discussing medical cannabis with your doctor, it is helpful to prepare for the appointment. By gathering relevant information, being well-informed about medical cannabis, and compiling supporting evidence, you can ensure a productive and informed discussion with your healthcare provider.
Additionally, if you’re looking for help with undiagnosed symptoms, it can be useful to keep a journal to record your symptoms, their severity, and the impact they have on your daily life. This will provide your doctor with valuable insights into your condition and the kinds of treatments that might help.
Start by taking the time to understand different components of cannabis, including:
You should also take some time to understand the difference between THC and CBD, and their effects on the body, research the available forms of medical cannabis, such as oils, capsules, or inhalation methods, to have a better understanding of what might work best for you and your condition.
Before making your appointment, you can also stay informed about the legal and regulatory framework surrounding medical cannabis in your region to demonstrate that you are taking a responsible approach to exploring medical cannabis as a treatment option.
When looking for research, make sure you’re reading accurate sources, such as peer-reviewed studies, and clinical trials that support the use of medical cannabis in treating symptoms similar to yours. Presenting this evidence to your doctor can help them make a more informed assessment of its potential benefits and weigh the risks against the benefits.
Be prepared to discuss both the positive and potential limitations of medical cannabis based on the available research. After all, not every medication is right for everybody — even with natural treatments. By approaching your discussion openly you can demonstrate your commitment to understanding all aspects of the treatment and facilitate a better-informed conversation with your doctor.
When it comes to bringing up medicinal cannabis with your doctor, initiating the conversation can feel daunting. However, with the right strategies and communication approaches, you can navigate this discussion effectively. Here are some tips to help you raise the topic with your doctor:
Remember, the goal is to have an open and honest conversation with your doctor. By expressing your concerns, seeking clarification, and respectfully sharing your research, you can foster a collaborative relationship that focuses on your well-being.
When discussing medicinal cannabis with your doctor, it's important to be prepared for potential prejudices and misconceptions they may have. Here are some strategies to help you address these issues respectfully and effectively:
If you feel that your concerns are not being adequately addressed or your doctor is unwilling to explore this option, it may be beneficial to seek a second opinion from another healthcare professional who is more knowledgeable and open-minded about medicinal cannabis.
The best way to do this is to find a practitioner who understands the intricacies of medical cannabis treatments. Specialised medicinal cannabis clinics like Polln can pair you with an expert Cannabis Clinician to review your condition and health goals to see if medicinal cannabis is right for you.
By approaching prejudices and misconceptions with respect, facts, and personal stories, you can help challenge any negative biases and foster a more informed and productive conversation. In the next section, we will discuss ways to advocate for yourself and ensure your voice is heard throughout the process.
Breaking the medical cannabis stigma and talking to your doctor about it is an important step towards exploring alternative treatment options for your health. Despite some doctors in Australia being unwilling to discuss medicinal cannabis treatments, open and honest communication with your doctor is important to broaden the acceptance of plant medicines in Australia.
Through open communication, patience, and advocacy for yourself, you can navigate the complexities of accessing medical cannabis and ensure that your voice is heard in the healthcare system.
Since the Australian Federal Government first legalised access to medicinal cannabis back in 2016, hundreds of cannabis products have become available.
The supply of medicinal cannabis within Australia is regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). With most medical cannabis products falling under the ‘unregistered drugs’ category, prescription requires approval under the TGA Special Access Scheme (SAS), or as an Authorised Prescriber (AP).
Medicinal cannabis can be prescribed by any medical doctor in Australia, provided that it is clinically appropriate, and that there is evidence supporting the use of medicinal cannabis for the patient’s treatment. Nurse Practitioners are also able to prescribe medicinal cannabis in certain states or territories.
Although medicinal cannabis can be prescribed by any doctor, it is important that you find a doctor who not only understands it in depth, but has also undergone additional training specifically for medicinal cannabis.
Should a practitioner wish to prescribe a medicinal cannabis product that is not registered on the ARTG, they will need to gain approval from the TGA in one of two ways:
The Special Access Scheme gives a practitioner the opportunity to apply for the ability to prescribe unapproved medicinal cannabis products to a single patient. When applying for the Special Access Scheme, the practitioner must outline the following:
There are 3 categories that determine how a practitioner can prescribe an unapproved medicinal cannabis product for a patient:
An unapproved therapeutic good can be prescribed for a patient who is classified as seriously ill. TGA defines seriously ill as a condition from which death is reasonably likely to occur within a matter of months, or from which premature death is reasonably likely to occur in the absence of early treatment1.
In order to prescribe a patient with medicinal cannabis under Category A, the prescriber must be a medical practitioner.
This pathway, also known as the SAS-B pathway, allows practitioners to submit an application using clinical justification for the use of medicinal cannabis and the benefits for a particular patient2. If a practitioner doesn’t have experience with a specific unapproved therapeutic good or a condition, they must receive a letter of support from an appropriate specialist. The goods a practitioner can prescribe will depend on a few factors, including:
The Authorised Prescriber Scheme gives a practitioner the opportunity to apply for the ability to prescribe an unapproved medicinal cannabis product to multiple patients3. Any Australian registered medical practitioner can apply to become an AP, however this pathway is not available to Nurse Practitioners.
Authorised Prescribers can prescribe unapproved products and will not need to seek approval for each individual patient they are prescribing the medication to. An Authorised Prescriber is required to report on:
Applications are generally approved in 10 business days, and once a practitioner has been approved to be an Authorised Prescriber, they may prescribe the unapproved product to patients in their care.
Here at Polln, we help all of our doctors become Authorised Prescribers. This means that patients do not experience the lengthy wait times that are commonly associated with the SAS-B scheme, and can instead be provided with access to their medications sooner.
The cannabis plant can contain anywhere between 80 and 100 cannabinoids, the most common being major cannabinoids, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). Learn more about cannabinoids here.
CBD is generally a non-impairing, well-tolerated cannabinoid – even at high doses4. Products that contain only CBD are classified as Schedule 4 medicines and do not require approval from a state or territory health department.
Products containing THC are classified as Schedule 8 controlled drugs – regardless of the amount of THC present. Like other Schedule 8 medications, prescriptions for THC-containing products must be approved by a state or territory health department.
With such a high number of medicinal cannabis products now available, a large percentage of them have not yet been assessed for safety by the Therapeutic Goods Association (TGA). As a result, products that are yet to be assessed are not eligible to be registered on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG)5.
The ARTG is a public database outlining the therapeutic goods available to us in Australia, as well as ensuring their safety, effectiveness, and quality. To prescribe medicinal cannabis products that are not listed on the ARTG, practitioners are required to gain approval from the TGA.
Each state has different rules and regulations pertaining to who can prescribe medicinal cannabis to patients.
To find out the specific regulations within your state, read on.
All medical practitioners within WA are able to prescribe medicinal cannabis products. However, prior to prescribing any medical cannabis products that aren’t registered with the TGA, prescribers must obtain approval from the TGA.
State approval is not necessary for the prescription of medicinal cannabis products containing cannabidiol (CBD) only, as they are classified as a Schedule 4 medicine.
Learn more about medical cannabis access in Western Australia.
In the Northern Territory, only an NT-based doctor is able to prescribe medicinal cannabis products. Before prescribing medicinal cannabis, the practitioner must first receive authorisation under the Authorised Prescriber Scheme or the Special Access Scheme.
A practitioner does not need to seek NT authorisation to prescribe Schedule 4 (CBD-only) products.
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in the Northern Territory.
Medical practitioners within SA can apply to prescribe unapproved medicinal cannabis products through the TGA. Medical practitioners must fulfil both Commonwealth and South Australian Controlled Substances legislative requirements in order to be deemed eligible to prescribe medicinal cannabis.
If the medical practitioner is prescribing medicinal cannabis for a patient displaying a condition that they are not an expert in, depending on the circumstances, the practitioner may be required to seek a report from a specialist commenting on the effectiveness and suitability of medicinal cannabis in the patient’s treatment.
While no state-based approval is necessary for a practitioner to prescribe Schedule 4 products, a Section18A authority is required when a practitioner wishes to prescribe a Schedule 8 medication to a patient under the following conditions:
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in South Australia.
Both Queensland medical practitioners and medical practitioners based in other states that are prescribing to Queensland-based patients are eligible to prescribe medicinal cannabis, provided that they hold TGA approval. Queensland doctors can prescribe Schedule 4 and Schedule 8 products without a Queensland State approval6.
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in Queensland.
Any registered medical practitioner within NSW is eligible to legally prescribe medicinal cannabis if they believe it is a suitable treatment for their patient, and if they receive approval from the TGA.
The prescription of Schedule 4 medications do not require approval from the TGA, however approval from the TGA is required before a practitioner can prescribe a Schedule 8 cannabis medicine.
As of September 2019, a practitioner must submit an application to NSW Health for the prescription of a Schedule 8 cannabis medication where it is required for:
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in New South Wales.
To be eligible to prescribe medicinal cannabis in the ACT, practitioners are required to receive approval from both the TGA and the Chief Health Officer of the ACT. They must also obtain Special Access Scheme approval before prescribing medicinal cannabis to any patients.
Under the ACT Controlled Medicines Prescribing Standards, medicinal cannabis can be approved for the following conditions and symptoms:
Applications for other conditions will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, and may be referred to the Medicinal Cannabis Medical Advisory Panel for further advice.
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in the ACT.
Any medical practitioner is able to prescribe medicinal cannabis to any patient with any condition, provided that they have obtained the required TGA and state approvals, and they believe it is a clinically appropriate treatment option7.
If a medical practitioner wishes to prescribe an unapproved medicinal cannabis product to one patient, they can apply to do so under the Special Access Scheme. If they wish to prescribe one medicinal cannabis product to patients with the same condition, they can apply to become an Authorised Prescriber of the product through the TGA.
If the patient receiving treatment has a drug dependency, the prescriber is required to obtain a Schedule 8 Treatment Permit under the Victorian Drugs Poisons and Controlled Substances Act.
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in Victoria.
In the event that conventional treatments and medications have failed, the Tasmanian Government has acknowledged that it is appropriate for a registered medical practitioner to prescribe a trial of an unregistered medicinal cannabis product.
Under the Tasmanian Government’s Controlled Access Scheme (CAS)8, relevant medical practitioners are authorised to prescribe medicinal cannabis. Through this scheme, medical cannabis can only be prescribed under limited circumstances where conventional treatments have otherwise been unsuccessful in treating the patient’s condition.
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in Tasmania.
There are a range of different products clinicians may choose to prescribe to their patients, with some of the most popular being:
Your prescribing practitioner will determine which method will be most effective in treating your symptoms. It is also important to note that each product will have a different onset, effect, and duration of action on each person.
Learn more about the different ways you can consume medical cannabis by visiting our ‘How Medicinal Cannabis Can Be Consumed’ article.
To talk to a practitioner about your medicinal cannabis journey, sign up as a Polln patient today and book an appointment with one of our cannabis clinicians.
Learn more about how you can access medicinal cannabis as a patient in Australia here.
Since cannabis was legalised for medicinal purposes in Australia in 2016, the number of patients being prescribed medicinal cannabis treatments has increased significantly with each year. As of May 2022, more than 248,000 medical cannabis prescriptions had been approved over the five years prior – 85% of which were given out since January 2020.
Despite its rise in popularity and a slow downward trend in pricing, medicinal cannabis treatments and services still remain inaccessible to many who cannot afford the costs that come with them. On top of the costs of the medicinal cannabis itself, many patients face additional consultation, application, prescription and dispensing fees that place product cost of these treatments even further out of reach.
In an Australian Cannabis as Medicine Survey published in 2022, only 24% of prescribed cannabis patients agreed that the current model for accessing medicinal cannabis was easy or straightforward. A barrier identified by most respondents was the cost of accessing medicinal cannabis, with an average monthly cost of $278. This number is down 24.86% from $370 in 2018. This is despite a slight increase in patients’ average daily cannabinoid dose, suggesting that decreasing medication costs are driving this trend. Following the increase in the average daily cannabinoid doses, the vast majority of Australian patients are still taking lower-than-average cannabinoid doses.
Given the seriousness of the symptoms and medical conditions that medicinal cannabis is prescribed to treat – from mental illness, to chronic pain, cancer and non-cancer pain to epilepsy, chemotherapy symptoms and conditions requiring palliative care – it is imperative that the high costs of these treatments be addressed to ensure they are as accessible as possible for the patients who need them.
While there is still work to be done, the good news is that the monthly costs associated with being a medicinal cannabis patient are beginning to slowly trend downward. The rise in prescriptions, available treatments, medical cannabis manufacturers, medicines and clinics offering medicinal cannabis services are all contributing to a slow reduction in patient costs, while the listing of a medicinal cannabis treatment on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) to help treat a rare form of childhood epilepsy may set a precedent for other potentially life-changing treatments to follow suit.
The exact amount of money you are likely to spend on your medicinal cannabis treatments will vary from patient to patient, and will largely depend on a range of individual factors. Some of these include:
All of these factors will influence the type, amount, dosage and, therefore the cost of the medicinal cannabis treatments prescribed to you.
Other factors which may impact the cost of medical cannabis treatments can include:
So far, just one medicinal cannabis treatment has been listed on the PBS to assist in the treatment of patients with Dravet syndrome, which is a rare form of childhood epilepsy. This listing provides price relief to just over 100 patients each year who would otherwise have paid more than $24,000 per year for the treatment. Under this scheme, patients can access the medication for just $41.30 per script, or $6.60 for concession card holders. The oral cannabidiol (CBD) oil treatment must be prescribed by a neurologist and as an adjunctive therapy (as a third-line treatment with at least two other antiepileptic medicines).
According to the Therapeutic Goods Administration, the listing of this medication on the PBS is thanks to the strength of the evidence supporting the use of medicinal cannabis in the treatment of certain types of epilepsies. As greater research and clinical trials emerge supporting the benefits of medical cannabis in treating a range of other chronic conditions, we may see more and more treatments being listed on the PBS. This would make medicinal cannabis treatments far more affordable and accessible to vulnerable patients all over Australia.
It’s a good idea to discuss treatment pricing during your consultation with your prescribing doctor. Your doctor may be able to take your budget and individual situation into account when selecting which medication/s to prescribe you.
In Australia, medicinal cannabis treatments are classified as highly regulated, Schedule 8 medicines. This means there are strict legal requirements that medical cannabis manufacturers and distributors must follow – which can drive up the cost of these medications.
The price of medicinal cannabis in Australia tends to be driven up by:
The price of medicinal cannabis in Australia has slowly been trending downwards since its legalisation in 2016. FreshLeaf’s most recent Australian Medicinal Cannabis Market Patient, Product and Pricing Analysis (2021) reported that retail pricing, wholesale pricing and patient average monthly spend have all been slowly decreasing as medicinal cannabis prescriptions rise.
At Polln, we believe in full transparency when it comes to our pricing. All of our consultations are designed to be as accessible as possible, with no hidden surprises or additional application or dispensing fees down the track.
Learn more about our Polln Price Guarantee here.
Polln consultation fees vary depending on the type and length of your consultation. First-time Polln patients will pay $110 for an Initial Consultation, which includes 30 minutes of dedicated one-on-one time with one of our qualified doctors, all of whom have completed additional training in medicinal cannabis prescribing. This covers the cost of your consultation where your doctor will write you a prescription, if you are deemed eligible for cannabis treatments.
Returning Polln patients will pay either $49 for a Short Follow Up Consultation (15 minutes) or $75 for a Long Follow Up Consultation (30 minutes), depending on how much time you need to spend with your practitioner.
Learn more about our consultation types by visiting our Pricing page.
We heard what medical cannabis patients in Australia had to say about having to pay additional dispensing fees and being charged inconsistently and above recommended retail pricing when trying to access their prescribed medications.
So, as part of our commitment to transparency and care at Polln, you’ll never pay dispensing fees or be charged above RRP for your treatments. Guaranteed.
Learn more about our Polln Price Guarantee by visiting our Pricing page.
The cost of any medications prescribed by our doctors will vary depending on your condition and what sort of treatments your doctor decides are best suited to you.
Due to government regulations, we are unable to advertise any medications or their prices on our website. Any prescribed medications and their costs will be discussed with your doctor during your consultation.
Depending on your individual needs and your treatment format, dosage requirements, and brand, you may pay anywhere from $150 to $3,650 per month for your cannabis treatments, with the latest research on average monthly spend for Australian medicinal cannabis patients currently sitting at $2784.
At Polln, we are committed to transparency – so you'll never pay dispensing fees or be charged above RRP for your treatments as part of our Polln Price Guarantee.
Following your consultation, you will be able to see your prescriptions in your patient dashboard. Our new online ordering portal makes it simpler for Polln patients to access their medication when they need it. The details, including cost, of each medication will be clearly stated under the ‘Prescriptions’ tab so that you can choose which medication you wish to order.
During your consultation, your Polln doctor will work with you to build a treatment plan that will work best for you and your condition, and, where possible, will always take your budget and personal circumstances into consideration before prescribing any treatments.
A great way to find out if you might be eligible for medicinal cannabis access before committing to the costs of a consultation is to take our free eligibility quiz.
Our eligibility quiz is designed to help you find out if you might qualify for a medical cannabis prescription while also helping you prepare for your first consultation with one of our Polln doctors.
Cannabinoids are a diverse array of ‘cannabis like’ molecules, including phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids. Cannabinoids can be found within our bodies, within plants (especially cannabis) and can be synthesised in laboratory settings. The main cannabinoids you’ll hear about are likely to be CBD and THC, which are phytocannabinoids found in cannabis. But, there is growing evidence to suggest that minor cannabinoids – alongside other cannabis compounds – may play an equally important part in the therapeutic benefits of your cannabis plant.
There are 3 types of cannabinoids:
Let’s first look at the main two types of cannabinoids you’ll encounter, endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids:
Endocannabinoids (or endogenous cannabinoids) are naturally occurring cannabinoids found in the brain and body. They are lipid signalling molecules which exist to mediate our normal physiological functions. This means they bind to a protein target (in this case, a cannabinoid receptor) to create specific cellular responses in the body, such as stimulating appetite. Endocannabinoids may have evolved in the brain to maintain biological harmony while also playing a role in neuronal plasticity (how the brain adapts to change).¹
The two major endocannabinoids that have been discovered are:
Both of these endocannabinoids help our internal functions run smoothly, and a healthy human body produces them as needed. When there is a deficiency or imbalance in our endocannabinoid production, then we may need to look at external ways to upregulate our endocannabinoid levels.
Endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (which both endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids interact with) and enzymes are the three components which make up the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is the molecular system located throughout our brains and bodies which helps regulate our immune responses, cell communication, sleep, pain, appetite, hormone levels, metabolism, memory, and more.
Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids derived from the cannabis plant which can also be found in other plants, including cloves, carrots and broccoli, in smaller quantities. Research has found that the cannabis plant produces between 80 and 100 cannabinoids and about 300 non-cannabinoid chemicals.² Like endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids also interact with our endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid receptors to produce certain effects within the brain and body.
The two most well-known cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Both CBD and THC as well as numerous other cannabinoids are used in medicinal cannabis for their therapeutic potential. We’ll explore some of these cannabinoids and their properties below.
Both endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) to produce varying effects. Each of us – whether we consume cannabis or not – has an ECS which helps regulate and balance many processes in the body.
The endocannabinoid system is made up of:
Unlike the nervous system or cardiovascular system, the endocannabinoid system is not an isolated structural system located in a specific region of the body. Instead, the ECS is a receptor system broadly distributed throughout the body which is acted upon by cannabinoids and enzymes. Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors can be found throughout the brain, organs, connective tissues, glands, and immune cells.
Endocannabinoids and the ECS
A typical endocannabinoid system function works when the body’s naturally produced endocannabinoids (which are present in various organs and tissues) become active by binding with a cannabinoid receptor (also located all throughout the body) to regulate a bodily function, such as digestion or sleep. Essentially, when a system or function in the body is out of balance, receptors bind to cannabinoids to help correct the problem. Once the endocannabinoid system brings the body back into balance, enzymes will break down the cannabinoids to prevent overcorrecting the problem.
Phytocannabinoids and the ECS
Much like endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids (which have a similar chemical structure to our endocannabinoids) also interact with our ECS and cannabinoid receptors to produce varying effects. When taken under the guidance of a prescribing doctor, phytocannabinoids like CBD, THC and more also have the potential to aid internal processes, mediate physiological functions and create balance within the body.
Different phytocannabinoids (or combinations of cannabinoids and other cannabis compounds such as terpenes) create different effects in the mind and body, depending on how they’re used and who is using them. Some cannabinoids, like THC, are psychoactive, meaning they have an effect on the mind and can cause changes in mood, awareness, feelings, thoughts and behaviour. Psychoactive cannabinoids can be impairing for a period of time after use. Other cannabinoids, like CBD, do not produce psychoactive effects, meaning they are not likely to impact cognitive abilities like driving or memory recall.
Cannabinoids have a range of studied therapeutic benefits, from nausea and pain relief³ to anti-inflammatory⁴ and anxiolytic (anxiety relieving) capabilities⁵. In Australia, cannabinoid medicines have been prescribed to treat the symptoms of a range of chronic conditions, including anxiety, chronic pain and endometriosis.
Continue reading to learn more about some of the main phytocannabinoids found in cannabis.
The cannabis plant contains over 400 distinct compounds, between 80 and 100 of which are cannabinoids. Each cannabinoid has its own unique properties, many of which are still being uncovered by researchers. CBD and THC are the two major cannabinoids that you’ll probably hear about the most, but there is growing evidence to support the therapeutic effects of minor cannabinoids such as CBG and CBN. In fact, many of the proposed medical benefits originally thought to arise from CBD may actually be attributed to minor cannabinoids.⁶
Let’s look at four of the main cannabinoids you might find in cannabis and cannabinoid medicines:
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of the main phytocannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. THC is a psychoactive cannabinoid which gives the ‘high’ sensation commonly associated with cannabis use. THC works directly with the ECS by binding with CB1 receptors in the brain, and may help relieve symptoms of pain while reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite, improving sleep and more in some patients.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is another of the most abundant in the long list of cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. Unlike THC, CBD is non-impairing and won't bring on a feeling of being ‘high.’ This is because CBD does not bind with the CB1 receptor which creates the high sensation. Instead, CBD works indirectly with the endocannabinoid system to interact with our opioid, dopamine, and serotonin receptors, giving it the potential to provide pain relief, depression and anxiety while boosting the immune system and helping with addiction.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a cannabinoid known to have anticonvulsant, sedative, and other pharmacological activities⁷ that are still being explored. CBN is created during the breakdown of the psychoactive cannabinoid THC⁸. Like THC, CBN also binds to the CB1 receptor, but at a much lower strength than THC. This technically makes it a psychoactive compound, but it doesn’t produce much of a ‘high’ sensation. CBN has a stronger affinity towards the CB2 receptors, which are mostly associated with immune system regulation.⁹
Cannabigerol (CBG) is an active, non-intoxicating minor cannabinoid found in cannabis. CBG can work synergistically with CBD to mitigate the ‘high’ produced by THC while also helping to compound each cannabinoid’s therapeutic effects, depending on the ratios of each cannabinoid present. Studies indicate that CBG may have therapeutic potential in treating the symptoms of some neurological disorders and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as having antibacterial activity.¹⁰
Synthetic cannabinoids are cannabinoids that have been synthesised to mimic the actions of phytocannabinoids or influence the body’s endocannabinoid levels. Like naturally occurring cannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids act on the cannabinoid receptors in the body to produce certain effects. The more accurate term for these compounds is ‘synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists’ (SCRAs).
While some synthetic cannabinoids (SCRAs) have been developed for medicinal use with a prescription, synthetic cannabis products obtained without a prescription are both prohibited and unregulated in Australia. These ‘synthetic cannabis’ products often have stronger and more negative effects (that are not caused by natural cannabis) and greater health risks than their prescribed or natural counterparts.¹¹
Some of the serious adverse effects seen with non-prescription synthetic cannabinoids include:
Synthetic cannabinoids are usually mixed with solvents and sprayed onto herbs to be sold in colourful, branded packets. Although the contents may be described as ‘herbal’, the actual psychoactive material in these products is synthetic, and not all ingredients or their correct amounts are likely to be listed. On top of this, chemicals usually vary significantly from batch to batch, so different packets can produce different effects, even when the packaging looks the same. All of these factors can contribute to the risk of overdosing on synthetic cannabis products.
The only way to ensure you’re getting the therapeutic benefits and cannabinoid content you need from your cannabis is to get a prescription from a licensed healthcare professional. Cannabinoids can cause unwanted side effects in some people at certain doses, particularly when consumed via illegal cannabis products which are not regulated for safety, quality or ingredients (learn more about legal v. illegal cannabis here) and which often contain high levels of the cannabinoid THC. While there have not been any reported deaths in teens and adults resulting solely from cannabis use or cannabis toxicity, synthetic cannabinoids obtained without a prescription are known to be dangerous and can even cause death.
CBD is generally well tolerated as a cannabinoid and is non-impairing, even at high doses.¹⁴ On the other hand, THC can induce the ‘high’ feeling associated with cannabis, and can be impairing or sedating in some people at certain doses. Because of this, THC is more likely to cause unwanted side effects like anxiety, confusion, dizziness, slower reaction times and increased heart rate at high doses. In rare cases and at high doses it can also cause hallucinations, paranoia, psychosis, panic attacks, nausea and vomiting.¹⁵ There may also be a link between heavy recreational cannabis use and some psychiatric disorders – with recent research suggesting that smoking high-potency cannabis each day could increase the chances of developing psychosis by nearly five times compared to people who have never used the drug.¹⁶
Available evidence suggests that the following guidelines may help users reduce or avoid cannabis use-related health risks:¹⁷,¹⁸
It’s important to note that driving with any amount of THC in your system is currently illegal in Australia (in every state except Tasmania) due to its potential to impair cognitive functions needed for safe driving. Always follow the dosing and administration guidelines provided to you by your doctor and monitor your symptoms and any side effects when starting a new treatment or changing your dose.
Are terpenes cannabinoids?
Like cannabinoids, terpenes are one of the numerous chemical compounds found within the cannabis plant which have therapeutic potential, but they are not considered cannabinoids. Terpenes are organic, aromatic compounds found in plants in the form of oils. Essentially, they are what gives a plant its unique flavour and aroma. But beyond just influencing the cannabis plant’s unique taste and smell, terpenes also play a significant role in the therapeutic effects of cannabis by interacting with cannabinoids and other cannabis compounds to create subtle differences in our experience.
Are cannabinoids addictive?
Cannabis is known to have a low to moderate risk of dependence that is significantly lower than alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and prescription drugs like morphine and opioid medicines.¹⁹ But there is still some potential for a dependence to develop, particularly in non-prescription users and those taking high concentrations of THC.
In 2018, a report from the World Health Organisation found that the cannabinoid CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential in humans and stated that to date ‘there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.’²⁰ In fact, evidence suggests that CBD can mitigate the unwanted effects of THC and shows potential in treating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, cancer, psychosis, Parkinson's disease, and other serious conditions. It is therefore highly unlikely that CBD is an addictive cannabinoid.
THC, on the other hand, may have the capacity to create dependence in some users. Studies show that the risk of recreational cannabis dependence is more common with high strength THC cannabis strains with a low CBD content (which are often bred illegally for this purpose), large amounts consumed, high frequency use (heavy, daily) and with starting use early in adolescence.²¹ Currently, there is very limited research looking at whether there is an association between medicinal THC and dependence, so more research is needed. With the support of a prescribing doctor, you should be able to find a treatment plan and dose that works for you while reducing the risk of dependence.
Taking tolerance breaks can reduce the amount of THC you need to feel the therapeutic benefits of your medicine and reduce the risk of dependence. Talk to your prescribing doctor if you believe you are experiencing any signs or symptoms of cannabis dependence.
Chronic cannabis use can lead to what is known as Cannabis Use Disorder. Cannabis Use Disorder is categorised by a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. This might look like taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended, neglecting work, social or other obligations due to cannabis use, developing a tolerance or experiencing withdrawals to cannabis, experiencing strong cravings to use cannabis and more.²² Talk to your doctor if you are concerned about or believe you are showing signs of Cannabis Use Disorder.
How many different cannabinoids are there?
The cannabis plant produces between 80 and 100 phytocannabinoids. In addition to CBD and THC, some of these include:
Do all cannabinoids get you high?
No. Not all cannabinoids are intoxicating and therefore will not produce the ‘high’ sensation that is most commonly associated with THC. This is because each cannabinoid has unique properties and interacts with the endocannabinoid system in varying ways. Cannabinoids (like THC) which interact with the CB1 receptor in our ECS are more likely to produce a psychoactive or intoxicating effect, however not all cannabinoids which interact with the CB1 receptor will produce a strong ‘high’ feeling.
It is common for cannabis (aka marijuana) products and treatments in the prescription and non-prescription market (which is currently illegal in Australia) to be broken up into three distinct groups: indica, sativa, and hybrid. Many patients and consumers still use these classifications to predict the effects their cannabis will have, but how accurate are they?
In this article, we’ll explore these three different strain types and the new ways patients, consumers and those in the medicinal cannabis industry are classifying their cannabis.
Cannabis is believed to have originated in Central Asia and to have migrated to almost every continent across all reaches of the planet, adapting to various climates in the process. These adaptations coupled with the selective breeding of cannabis by cultivators led to variations in cannabis that became known as landrace strains, which are each named after their region of origin.
Many of these landrace strains were collected from their native habitats and brought to the Western world, where they were crossbred with one another in horticultural attempts to explore the plant’s potential. This process of hybridisation has given rise to the thousands of named cannabis varieties consumed across the world today.
You may have heard the terms ‘indica’ and ‘sativa’ as well as ‘hybrid’ in discussions around cannabis strains. Indicas and sativas came from the original landrace strains mentioned above and are known for their distinctive effects on the user.
In 1753, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (known as the ‘father of modern taxonomy’) published Species Plantarum, a book listing every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera. Linnaeus classified all cannabis plants under one group, ‘Cannabis sativa L.,’ with ‘Cannabis’ as the genus, ‘sativa’ as the species, and ‘L.’ indicating Linnaeus’ system. ‘Sativa’ comes from the Latin ‘sativum,’ meaning ‘cultivated.’1
Later, in 1785, French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck became the first person to classify the differences between two distinct species of the plant: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa. Lamarck’s classifications were based on the physical characteristics of the different plants, and his own experience when testing them. ‘Cannabis sativa’ was found to be a taller, slimmer, and more fibrous plant, while ‘Cannabis indica,’ was found to be shorter, wider, and possessing greater psychoactive properties. The name Indica means ‘from India,’ which is where the plant was thought to originate.
Today, these definitions have endured. These are the three main types of 'strains' of cannabis you may have encountered:
We’ll explore each of these strains below.
Typically known for their relaxing properties, Indica strains originally grew in cold, northern climates. They grew shorter and stockier because of these environments, with a shorter life cycle that allowed them to be harvested before the colder weather hit.
Known for their uplifting, stimulating effects, Sativa strains are found primarily in hot, dry climates.
Nowadays, instead of indica and sativa strains, most cannabis strains are hybrid strains, a combination of both (we'll unpack this more below). Therefore it doesn't really make sense to compare indica vs sativa when it comes to therapeutic effects. Where the two different cannabis strains do differ distinctly is in appearance.
Cannabis growers are constantly producing new and unique strains from different combinations of indica- and sativa-descended parent plants, and these are known as hybrid cannabis strains. Often grown to target specific medical use cases, hybrid cannabis plants can deliver a wide range of varying effects. Hybrids are typically grown on farms or in greenhouses from a combination of sativa and indica strains, each with unique ratios of THC to CBD.
Due to the long history of cross breeding cannabis, research suggests that strains with pure indica or pure sativa strains are rare today.2 This means that most 'Indica strains' and 'Sativa strains' are actually hybrid strains, with genetics inherited from both types.
Hybrids are typically classified as indica-dominant, sativa-dominant, or balanced. This means that the effects of a hybrid strain will depend on whether it has more indica or sativa in its lineage, and (more importantly) its cannabinoid and terpene content. Hybrids are typically grown to elicit specific medicinal and other effects, such as reducing anxiety and depression, delivering pain relief, and more.
Today, research suggests that years of crossbreeding has likely hybridised sativa and indica strains to the point that most of the cannabis consumed today is a combination of the two species’ lineages.
But if sativa, indica and hybrid strain classifications don't matter as much anymore, what does?
Many in the industry now prefer to classify cannabis as fitting more or less within these categories, defined by the level of major cannabinoids CBD and THC, also known as chemotypes:
But even more importantly – we are increasingly seeing the value that terpenes, minor cannabinoids (such as CBG and CBN), flavonoids and other compounds have in the therapeutic potential of cannabis strains.
Early research tells us that a whole plant approach to cannabinoid therapies which takes full advantage of the cannabinoid content (beyond THC and CBD) and terpene profile of the cannabis plant may be the most effective way to meet its healing potential.3,4
Cannabis ruderalis is a third type of cannabis strain which contains low quantities of cannabinoids. It isn’t widely used because it isn’t known to produce any potent effects.
The best way to find the strain that works for you and your symptoms is to get a valid prescription from a licensed healthcare professional. A doctor who is well versed in cannabis and cannabinoid medicines will be able to find a treatment type that works for you, while taking all of your individual needs as well as available strain types, cannabinoid and terpene content, formats, and delivery methods into consideration.
It’s important to note that cannabis grown or obtained without a prescription is illegal in all states in Australia, except the ACT. And, because non-prescription cannabis is unregulated in Australia, it is highly likely that your therapeutic needs won’t be met by the cannabis you purchase without a prescription. Learn more about illegal v. legal cannabis in Australia here. A medicinal cannabis prescription from a qualified doctor is the best way to ensure the safety, quality, efficacy and cannabinoid and terpene content of your cannabis medicines for optimum results.
To talk to a doctor about medicinal cannabis and your options, sign up as a Polln patient or make an appointment today. Or, find out if medicinal cannabis might be right for you by taking our free eligibility quiz.
While indica strains are most commonly associated with relaxing effects, there is little evidence to suggest that this is due to their strain-type alone. In fact, research now suggests that most strains are hybrid, containing both indica and sativa lineages. The plant compounds, cannabinoids and terpenes are the best indicators for the effects your cannabis will have on symptoms like anxiety. If you are looking to reduce anxiety, a qualified doctor can help you find a cannabis treatment with the right cannabinoid and terpene content for you and your symptoms.
Smoking is not supported by the TGA, and comes with a long list of health risks. Learn about some of the other methods available for consuming medicinal cannabis to get the most out of your treatments here.
In terms of their intoxicating or psychoactive effects, sativa strains are said to be ‘stronger’ than indica strains because of their high THC content. THC is a psychoactive, intoxicating cannabinoid which produces the ‘high’ commonly associated with cannabis use, and it can be impairing and cause adverse side effects at higher doses.
If you take different strains of cannabis together at the same time, you will alter the effects of your cannabis – much like a hybridised strain. If you are prescribed two different strains or types of cannabinoid medicines, your doctor will likely have prescribed the specific strains for varying, specific uses, or to take at different times in the day. Talk to your doctor about the best time to take them and whether they are safe to be taken together or close together.
Experimenting with or taking too much of either of your cannabis strains could result in negative effects, so it’s best to only consume your cannabinoid medicines as advised by your doctor.
Medicinal cannabis (historically also known as ‘marijuana’) can be delivered to the body in a number of ways, depending on your individual needs as a patient.
When consuming cannabis, different methods and the site of absorption will impact how the cannabis compounds are absorbed, distributed, and metabolised by the body, altering your body’s response to them. This means that the cannabis format selected will have varying effects on the duration, strength and quality of your experience.
Let’s look at five different ways to consume medical cannabis:
There are two different ways to consume cannabis via inhalation — smoking and vaporising — both of which produce rapid onset and similar effects.
In medicinal contexts, vaping is preferable to smoking cannabis because it reduces the amount of undesired hydrocarbons being absorbed into the body while also alleviating the need for tobacco, which can lead to addiction and other serious health issues. Vaping is considered the healthier alternative to smoking for medical patients as it also allows for a more precise dose to meet the therapeutic needs of a patient, given that less of the THC dose is lost in side stream/combustion.
Vaping is the process of heating the cannabis plant or cannabis extracts at high heat without burning it, allowing cannabinoids and terpenes to be released in the form of a vapour, which is then inhaled. Inhalation delivery methods, like vaping, allow cannabinoids to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream through the lungs, making this the preferred method for patients who require rapid relief of symptoms.
Some of the benefits of vaping instead of smoking flower, include:
Although vaping cannabis – particularly with a TGA approved dry-herb vaporiser – is known to be safer than smoking, it can still come with health risks.
The negative health risks associated with vaping are often related to the use of illegally manufactured vape products6 and vape products with chemical profiles that are closer to that of e-liquids. Some of these health risks include:
Patients who have an underlying condition which affects the lungs or airways, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, may be advised against using a vaporiser to consume medicinal cannabis. In these cases, the doctor may prescribe a treatment to be taken sublingually or orally.
To be safe and effective, prescribed cannabis flower should be vaporised using a TGA-approved dry-herb vaporiser within the correct temperature range as advised by your prescribing doctor. While these vaporisers can be more expensive than non-medical-grade vaporisers, they are known to have significantly less health risks.
Talk to your doctor before using a vaporiser with your prescribed cannabis treatments and only use your treatments and vaporiser as advised.
Although smoking is the oldest and most common way to consume for non-medical cannabis users, it is not recommended for medical cannabis patients due to the health risks and the variability and unpredictability of each individual’s response. Some common smoking methods include use of rolling paper or smoking devices such as pipes or bongs. Other consumption methods are recommended and considered healthier alternatives for medical patients such as ingestion, sublingual or vaping methods. In fact, prescribed medicinal cannabis is consumed predominantly via oral routes, with an estimated 71% of patients opting for this method in Australia.7
Here are some things to consider when it comes to smoking methods:
Ingestion methods of cannabis consumption include any cannabis treatment that is consumed orally – such as cannabis edibles, tinctures, oils, capsules and extracts. While the effects of cannabinoid medicines will take longer to kick in when taken orally, they will also last longer1. This makes them ideal for medical conditions or symptoms where control over longer periods of time is required, similar to other types of slow release medication. In a 2022 study of 1600 participants, oral consumption was the most common method for medicinal cannabis use (72%) in Australia7.
When ingesting cannabis, cannabinoids are absorbed through your digestive system and gastrointestinal tract before metabolising in the liver, resulting in slightly varying medicinal properties and both stronger and longer lasting effects than other methods. Oral medicinal cannabis treatments can come in the form of tinctures, oils, capsules, lozenges or sprays. Cannabis-infused edibles – such as gummies, cookies, candies, drinks, and more – are another popular ingestion method for cannabis, however, there are limited edible medicinal cannabis treatments currently available in Australia.
The sublingual method of cannabis involves placing the treatment under the tongue, a consumption method which allows active ingredients to be absorbed directly into the blood vessels of your tongue, bypassing the digestive system. Treatments taken sublingually can come in the form of cannabis oil, tinctures, lozenges, tablets, sprays, wafers and more.
Patients who use this delivery method will place their sublingual cannabis treatment under their tongue so that the mouth's mucus membranes – similar to those in the lungs – absorb the consumed cannabis into the bloodstream.
Because this method allows the active ingredients in cannabis to bypass the digestive system, its bioavailability is higher than that of edibles and other ingestible cannabis treatments, allowing for faster onset and higher concentrations of cannabinoids.
In this method, the cannabis products are applied directly to the skin, penetrating only the top layers of skin and providing localised relief from inflammation, pain, skin irritations and more. This is one of the most discreet ways of consuming cannabis.
Cannabis topicals come in a variety of forms, including cannabis balms, lotions, creams, salves and transdermal patches.Topical CBD skin creams in particular have shown promise in treating symptoms of skin conditions like acne, psoriasis and eczema12, arthritis13, neuropathy pain14 and jaw pain15.
For most topical application, cannabinoids react with receptors under the skin but do not reach the bloodstream. Transdermal patches however, are one method designed to slowly release cannabinoids into the bloodstream over a longer period of time, usually producing effects within 15 minutes.
There is substantial clinical evidence suggesting the beneficial effects of topical cannabinoids (especially CBD) in treating a range of skin conditions16. However much more research is needed in this area.
Suppositories offer a targeted dose of cannabinoids to a localised area that can help facilitate higher absorption rates in the body. Suppositories are particularly useful for those suffering from ailments related to the mid-lower region of the body, including pelvic inflammatory diseases, inflammatory bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, endometriosis and more. In this method, medicinal cannabis is provided in a solid form to be inserted into the rectum or vagina. Cannabis oil suppositories have one of the greatest absorption rates of all delivery methods, producing effects within 10 to 15 minutes for rectal administration. Unfortunately, medical cannabis suppositories are currently not available in Australia, but we hope that in the near future, more and more novel cannabis products with therapeutic benefits such as this are made available to Australian patients.
Consuming cannabis via vaporisation (with a TGA approved vaporiser), ingestion, sublingual methods and suppositories are all approved methods for consumption in Australia with a valid prescription. Always follow the advice of your prescribing doctor when selecting the way you wish to consume cannabis - as well as the dosing and administration instructions provided in your prescription or on your treatment packaging.
While there are many different ways to consume cannabis, it’s important to note that not everyone experiences these medicines in the same way. What works best for one patient may not necessarily be the ideal method for you. Individual endocannabinoid systems, tolerance levels and other biological factors vary from person to person, so it’s important to try and find out which consumption methods work best for you with the support of your doctor.
To talk to a doctor about medicinal cannabis and different delivery methods, sign up as a Polln patient today. Or take our free eligibility quiz to find out if medicinal cannabis might be right for you.
Terpenes (pronounced tur-peens) are the organic, aromatic compounds found in plants in the form of oils. Essentially, they are what gives a plant its unique flavour and aroma. When it comes to cannabis plants, terpenes are contained in the trichomes of female cannabis plants in the form of sticky resin glands. Cannabis plants contain more than 150 types of terpenes, each responsible for the aromatic diversity of the wide range of cannabis cultivars and strains available.
Until recently, much of the cannabis industry has been focused almost solely on the therapeutic qualities of cannabinoids like THC and CBD. But, as our knowledge of terpenes continues to grow and cannabis science expands, it’s becoming increasingly apparent that these aromatic compounds are medicinal powerhouses in their own right. Beyond just influencing the cannabis plant’s unique taste and smell, terpenes play a significant role in the therapeutic effects of cannabis by interacting with cannabinoids and other cannabis compounds to create subtle differences in our experience.
It all comes down to synergy. That is, multiple elements of cannabis working together to amplify each individual element’s effect. This allows for the overall effect of the plant to be greater than the sum of its individual parts (this phenomenon is known as the ‘entourage effect’1). When cannabinoids like THC and CBD are paired with other cannabis compounds such as terpenes (or certain concentrations of them) they create or emphasise particular medicinal or other types of effects, opening up a world of therapeutic combinations and medicinal purposes that researchers are beginning to explore.
Throughout history, humans have been harnessing the wide range of aromas and properties of terpenes for various purposes, including medicinal. Different terpenes have different effects on the mind and body, with potential capabilities ranging from antibacterial and antifungal to anticancer and pain relieving2, to name a few. The potential medicinal properties of these aromatic compounds and the way terpenes interact with your endocannabinoid system are still being explored and we hope to see more medical research in the near future.
Ever used the scent of lavender to help you drift off to sleep? You have the terpene linalool to thank for that effect! Studies have shown that linalool aids sedation and relaxation while reducing aggression and hostility. Does the smell of citrus have an uplifting effect on your mood? That’s thanks to the terpene limonene, which is known as a natural antidepressant (among its many other medicinal properties)2.
These are just some of the potential therapeutic effects and benefits of terpenes, many of which can be found in cannabis treatments:
Much more research is needed (especially in humans) to uncover the full therapeutic potential of terpenes10. But preliminary research on medicinal properties and a longstanding history of terpenes being used in traditional medicine indicates that these compounds may have powerful health benefits yet to be explored.
Terpenes found in cannabis plants aren’t intoxicating on their own, and they won’t make you feel high in the way that the cannabinoid THC might. However, some terpenes are still considered to be psychoactive because they have an effect on the brain (such as making you feel relaxed, uplifted, or less anxious).
While cannabis terpenes won’t get you high on their own, these aromatic compounds may still alter the effects of intoxicating cannabinoids like THC. THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the high feeling many experience with cannabis use. Some people believe that different combinations of cannabinoids and terpenes may alter and even mitigate the undesirable effects that some THC users experience, like anxiety and intoxication. There is also some evidence that terpenes enhance the existing therapeutic properties of cannabinoids – such as pain relieving6 and antidepressant2 effects – when they are taken together.
Cannabinoids and terpenes are both organic compounds found in cannabis plants – and both have varying effects on the mind and body – but terpenes are not cannabinoids. Let’s explore the differences between the two:
Cannabis terpenes affect our experience of cannabis in a number of ways – depending on the types, concentrations and combinations of terpenes in the flower, the cannabinoids and other compounds present, and the individual patient consuming the cannabis. Terpenes range dramatically in aroma, with varying smells often being associated with certain medicinal or psychoactive effects. These aromatic compounds are highly bioactive, and interact with different receptors in the body – including our endocannabinoid receptors – to produce varying effects.
Lavender, for example, which contains the terpene linalool (which is also found in many cannabis strains) is known for its calming effects. This means that linalool-rich strains of cannabis are likely to have a calming, pain-relieving effect greater than what would be achieved with isolated cannabinoids or a strain with a different terpene profile. The terpene limonene – found in the oils of citrus plants – is associated with bright, uplifting and energy-boosting effects. This means that a limonene-rich strain of cannabis would be more likely to elevate a patient’s mood beyond what cannabinoids are capable of achieving on their own.
Mounting scientific evidence suggests that terpenes play a considerable role in not only modulating the intoxicating effects of THC, but also working in synergy with other cannabinoids to potentially increase their therapeutic value. A 2018 review of CBD treatments for epilepsy found that patients with epilepsy who took full-spectrum CBD extract – including cannabinoids and terpenes – experienced improved symptoms and fewer side effects than those who took CBD isolate, which contains only cannabinoids12.
So, if a cannabis treatment is selected for a patient based on THC or cannabinoid content alone, then that patient is likely being robbed of the full therapeutic experience and potential of their cannabis treatment. Not only will they miss out on the rich and distinct scents and flavours of the cannabis strain, but they will also miss out on the range of additional medicinal benefits that can only be experienced through a strain’s specific terpene profile. That’s why it’s so important to speak with a qualified doctor who understands the complexities of medical cannabis treatments.
There are many different types of terpenes present in the oils of plants, each producing different smells and tastes as well as effects on the humans and animals who consume them. The cannabis plant alone contains more than 150 terpenes which each contribute to the plant’s therapeutic qualities and potential health benefits.
Here are just some of the most commonly known terpenes you might find in your medicinal cannabis treatments and in other plants:
Whether a terpene is good or bad for you depends on the plant it is found in and how it is being used. Terpenes are legal and are not classed as a drug on any prohibited drug list. They exist in almost any plant (including herbs, fruits, vegetables and flowers) that you can find in your garden or at your local grocery store, such as lemons, rosemary and mangoes. They also exist in other plants, such as non-edible and toxic plants in the wild.
In their pure, concentrated forms, terpenes can cause unwanted side effects like dizziness and irritation when consumed, inhaled or topically applied. This is why essential oils that have not been diluted should not be ingested or applied directly onto the skin13.
In diluted form (5% or less), terpenes are non-toxic and safe to use.
Cannabis medicines are highly regulated in Australia for safety, cannabinoid and terpene content, quality and efficacy. Any terpenes found in these treatments have been deemed safe (and even beneficial!) for human consumption. Terpenes are not known to be addictive.
Talk to your doctor if you have any concerns about terpenes in your medicinal cannabis treatments, including any potential allergies or sensitivities.
Unfortunately, not all cannabis treatments contain terpenes. And for those treatments that do contain terpenes, not all suppliers measure terpene content from batch to batch or place an emphasis on maintaining the plant’s terpene profile in production. This has the potential to lead to inconsistencies in the effects of those treatments from batch to batch.
While cannabis products that use the full plant or whole flower contain the original terpene profiles of the cannabis strains, full-spectrum and broad-spectrum cannabis treatment (which also contain terpenes) may have reduced terpene profiles due to the extraction methods used to produce them. Isolates do not contain terpenes, however some isolate treatments may have a terpene or terpene blend added back in (that is not from the original plant) – these are known as terpsolates.
There are many variables that can affect the amount of terpenes found in cannabis strains. Environmental factors such as light exposure, temperature, whether the plant is grown outdoors or indoors, growth methods, nutrient levels, and harvest practices can all influence terpene levels. Because many terpenes are volatile compounds that easily evaporate, they are at risk of being lost during standard cannabis extraction processes. But thanks to more in depth cannabis research and growing awareness of the therapeutic benefits of terpenes - and the potential health benefits of the 'entourage effect' - is leading to more sensitive extraction and production methods to help maintain the cannabis plant’s terpene profile.
Just like cannabinoids, your doctor can help you choose an appropriate medicinal cannabis treatment based on its terpene profile and the effects these terpenes may have on your specific symptoms or condition. Terpenes may contribute to the overall affect of the cannabis cultivar – i.e. whether it is sedative, calming, uplifting or euphoric – or they might have individual medicinal benefits that are suited to your condition – such as being anti-inflammatory or a digestive aid. Also, terpenes affect the taste of cannabis, and there may be certain ones you prefer – just like if you were selecting a tea or coffee.
If you're looking to reap all of the health benefits native to the cannabis plant through your medical cannabis treatment, talk to your prescribing doctor about available cannabis treatments that incorporate a diverse terpene profile and an array of other compounds.
To talk to an expert about terpenes in cannabis, sign up as a Polln patient or make an appointment today.
You can also take our free eligibility quiz and find out if medicinal cannabis may be right for you.
How long do terpenes last?
Once a cannabis plant has been picked, all of its properties, including cannabinoids and terpenes, begin to degrade. Proper storage methods are the only way to maintain the quality and efficacy of your cannabis plant and its therapeutic properties over time.
Terpenes are found on the trichomes of the cannabis plant. These are the tiny, glandular appendages on the surface of cannabis flowers. Maintaining terpenes within the cannabis plant can be done by ensuring the trichomes are stored correctly and that damage is minimised.
To avoid the evaporation of terpenes as well as the oxidation and breakage of terpene-containing trichomes, adequate humidity control should be prioritised in cannabis storage. Maintaining a 55-65% relative humidity (RH) range minimises the loss of these aromatic compounds in cannabis. As well as an airtight container, an ideal RH range can be achieved by using a terpene shield, which is included in some medicinal cannabis flower products sold in Australia. Talk to your doctor about terpene-containing cannabis treatments and terpene preservation.
Are terpenes legal in Australia?
Terpenes are legal and widely available not only in plants, but in a range of household products including cosmetics, cleaning products, medications, perfumes, essential oils and more.
Do terpenes show up on drug tests?
Terpenes are not classed as a drug on any prohibited drug list and are therefore not tested for in drug tests. Drug tests in Australia are generally measuring for presence of the cannabinoid THC. Learn more about the different types of cannabis drug tests.
Can you vape terpenes?
Terpenes are found in many cannabis treatments, including cannabis flower. So, yes, they can be vaped if they are present within the cannabis treatment you have been prescribed to vape with an approved vaporiser.
Head to our ‘Ultimate guide to vaping cannabis’ for more.
While there is no definitive answer to the question of how long cannabis (aka weed or marijuana) can stay in your system, studies can give us a good idea of how long cannabis may be detected in various drug tests, such as saliva, blood, urine, and hair tests. Generally, higher doses and more frequent cannabis use will lead to longer detection times. Depending on the type of test taken, cannabis may be detected in your system for up to 90 days or 3 months.1
For cannabis to leave your system, your body first needs to convert it into less active or inactive metabolites through the process known as metabolism, which we’ll explore below.
Metabolism is the body’s process of breaking down or transforming almost all of the materials that enter it, from food and drink to drugs and plant medicines like cannabis. The rate at which your body metabolises the cannabinoids and other compounds within your cannabis will determine how long it stays in your system.
In Australia, it is illegal to drive with any amount of THC in your system, and THC is the only cannabinoid tested for in drug tests. This is because THC is an intoxicating, psychoactive cannabinoid which can affect cognitive and motor skills that are needed for safe driving – including attention, judgement, vision, coordination and memory – at certain doses.
Studies have shown that moderate amounts of THC produce mild driving impairment lasting up to four hours. In comparison, 1500mg of the cannabinoid CBD (the highest daily medicinal dose) has ‘no impact on people’s driving or cognitive abilities’2 and so is not tested for in drug tests. Learn more about medicinal cannabis and driving in Australia here.
Let’s briefly look at the metabolism process for THC, the psychoactive cannabinoid detected in cannabis drug tests:
Step 1: The cannabis plant – which contains the cannabinoid THCa – is heated in a vaporiser, or is heated in the process of being extracted into another format for oral, sublingual or other consumption methods (such as an oil).
Step 2: As the THCa in the cannabis plant heats up, it converts to THC.
Step 3: When the THC is inhaled as a vapour or delivered sublingually (under the tongue), it travels through the body via the bloodstream before reaching the liver.
When THC is ingested / eaten, it travels to the liver via the digestive system before being taken up by fat tissue in the body and slowly released back into the bloodstream.
Step 4: THC binds to cannabinoid receptors in the body to produce varying therapeutic and other effects.
Step 5: In the liver, THC is metabolised a number of times by CYP2C and CYP3A enzymes. It is first converted into the THC metabolite 11-OH-THC (which produces further psychoactive effects) and then into 11-COOH-THC (which is not psychoactive).
Step 6: More than 65% of THC exits the body via the stool and approximately 20% is excreted in urine. Most of the THC is excreted within 5 days as hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites, but some can remain stored in the fat deposits in the body and in hair follicles.3
The amount of time it takes the body to metabolise cannabis and ultimately how long it will stay in your system will vary from individual to individual depending on many factors, including:
The most effective way to ensure you do not have any THC in your system is to abstain from THC for an extended period of time. How long you choose to abstain from THC may depend on any of the cannabis metabolism factors mentioned above, or on your driving status, work status or type of drug test you may need to take.
Maintaining good health during your abstinence period by drinking the recommended amount of water each day, eating a healthy diet and exercising may help your body metabolise and expel THC stores more effectively. But, there is no evidence to suggest that doing excessive amounts of any of these things will speed up the cannabis metabolism process.
Beware of any ‘cannabis detox’ products or methods that promise to magically flush out THC from your system in a short period of time. There is no evidence-backed supplement, cleanse, juice, tea, drink or product that can rapidly eliminate THC stores in the body. If you are a medicinal cannabis patient who regularly uses THC, your best bet is to abstain from THC and take a cannabis break to support the healthy functioning of your body, metabolism and liver and organs through adequate hydration and a healthy diet and lifestyle.
There are a number of different tests used to detect cannabis in the body. These tests measure the cannabinoid THC and THC metabolites which can remain in your system long after the effects of THC have worn off.
How long THC stays in your system depends on the factors above while the likelihood of THC showing up on a drug test will depend on the testing method used. Common tests for THC include:
A urinalysis (or urine test) is one of the most commonly used tests for detecting THC in Australia. Urine testing tests for the metabolite 11-COOH-THC, which can be detectable in urine for as long as 30 days or more, depending on the individual.
A 2017 review6 of urine tests found that THC was detectable in urine for varying durations after last use, depending on the following frequencies of cannabis consumption:
Saliva tests use saliva samples to detect THC. They are another common type of test performed in Australia, particularly in random roadside testing.
Generally, saliva tests can detect THC for about 12 hours after use in people who use cannabis infrequently. But for those who frequently use cannabis, such as medicinal cannabis patients who use cannabis to help treat chronic conditions, THC can usually be detected for around 30 hours after use.7
The hair test can detect cannabis for the longest duration after last cannabis use. Research shows that THC in hair can produce a positive test after 3 months (or 90 days) of last drug intake.8
Blood tests typically detect recent cannabis use, or use that has occurred within the last 2 to 12 hours.4 In heavy, daily cannabis users, THC can be detected in the blood for up to 7 days.9
THC which has been dormant in fat stores of frequent cannabis users may also be released into blood plasma following exercise, which may be detectable on blood tests.5
It is currently illegal to drive with any amount of the cannabinoid THC in your system in all states in Australia, even if you are a medicinal cannabis patient with a valid prescription. If you choose to take THC or do not wait long enough for the THC to leave your system before you drive and you test positive for THC in a mouth swab / saliva test, you can lose your licence.
Random roadside drug testing uses saliva tests to detect THC. However these tests have limitations. One study conducted by the Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics in Australia found that roadside drug tests often failed to detect THC, while also producing false positives for THC presence up to 10% of the time.10
Because it is so difficult to know the exact detection windows after consuming THC, if you are a medicinal cannabis patient who has to drive frequently, you may want to consider a CBD treatment rather than a THC one under the current driving laws in Australia. Ensure you are open and honest with your prescribing doctor about your driving status and current situation so they can provide you with a treatment plan that works best for you.
Does CBD oil show up in an Australian drug test?
Routine drug tests in Australia, including roadside saliva tests and workplace cannabis drug testing, do not screen for the cannabinoid CBD. This is because CBD is a non-intoxicating compound that does not impair driving or other cognitive abilities.11
CBD oil or any other CBD medication that does not contain the cannabinoid THC will not show up on roadside or workplace drug tests, as these are testing for THC metabolites from the psychoactive cannabinoid THC (which can be impairing) and other drugs or illicit substances.
Do at-home drug tests work?
At-home drug tests generally use either urine or saliva to detect cannabis. Like laboratory tests, at-home drug testing kits test for the presence of THC metabolites, and will provide either a positive or negative result.
No test of this type is 100% accurate, and a number of factors can influence results, including:
While at-home tests may provide a useful indication for the presence of THC, laboratory tests are the most reliable way to confirm if THC is in your system.
Can secondhand smoke make you fail a drug test?
Secondhand smoke is unlikely to make you fail a drug test or produce a false positive under normal circumstances.
One 2015 study12 has shown that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilised cutoff concentrations. However, these positive tests are likely to be quite rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occuring only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious.
An earlier 2005 study13 which placed cannabis smokers and non-smokers together in a vehicle showed that when collected properly and with a waiting period before collection, the risk of a positive result from secondhand smoke exposure was virtually eliminated in oral fluid testing.
You’ve probably heard by now that cannabis (historically known as marijuana, learn more about cannabis language here) is a very personalised medication. Unlike many other medications, there are no standardised dosages for medicinal cannabis. This means that what works best for you in terms of dosage, format, cannabinoid content and other factors may not work for another patient, even if you share the same condition.
So while finding your recommended dosage is a personalised journey you will undertake with your prescribing doctor, there are some general guidelines you can follow.
The main piece of advice you’ll hear is to ‘start low and go slow.’ This is particularly important for beginner cannabis consumers. Your doctor will likely prescribe a low dose and get you to slowly increase this at small increments until you find the best dosage for relieving your symptoms. They will also give you an ideal dose range to work within so that you’re not exceeding the recommended cannabis dosage and flooding your cannabinoid receptors. Through careful monitoring of your symptoms with the support of your prescribing doctor, you should be able to and gradually increase and adjust your treatment plan to find a dose that works best for you.
Let’s look at some of the factors that will play a part in finding your ideal cannabis dosage.
Bioavailability refers to the ability of a drug or other substance to be absorbed and used by the body for its intended purpose. When it comes to medical cannabis, bioavailability determines the rate at which cannabinoids are absorbed and effects are produced in the body. This means that bioavailability determines how quickly and how effectively your medicine will relieve your symptoms, which in turn determines what your ideal dose might be.
Cannabis bioavailability varies greatly depending on your method of consumption. This is because different routes of administration have differing effects on the way the human body absorbs, distributes, processes, and eliminates a substance like medical cannabis.
There are a number of different ways to take medicinal cannabis, and a number of different types and formats of cannabis that you may be prescribed. We’ll explore some of these below.
Vaping is the process of heating cannabis flower or extract at a high temperature without burning it, allowing cannabinoids and terpenes to be released in the form of a vapour, which is then inhaled.
In terms of bioavailability, a 2016 study found that some medical-grade cannabis vaporisers, including the Volcano Medic by Storz & Bickel, are capable of reaching bioavailability ratings of between 50–80%.1 This makes the bioavailability of cannabis vapour (with the right vaporiser) significantly higher than other cannabis formats, which may suit medical patients who require more rapid onset and faster relief from symptoms.
For medical uses, vaping is preferable to smoking not only because of its increased bioavailability, but because it maintains cannabinoid content and contains far fewer toxins and carcinogens. It is also supported by the TGA when a medical-grade dry-herb vaporiser is used.
Although smoking cannabis is the most common route of administration for non-medical cannabis use, it is not recommended for medical patients due to the health risks and the variability and unpredictability of each individual patient and their response.
Compared to vaping cannabis with a TGA-approved vaporiser, smoking cannabis comes with far greater health risks, reduced bioavailability (about 30%2) and less active ingredients. At least 40% of the THC dose in cannabis is lost in side stream/combustion when smoked,3 making it difficult to estimate the amount of THC a patient is receiving.
In the aforementioned 2016 study1 which compared the quality of cannabis vapour and cannabis smoke, only 3 non-cannabinoids were found in the cannabis vapour produced by the Volcano Medic, while about 150 chemicals were identified in the smoke of combusted cannabis, including 5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are strong carcinogens.
The sublingual method of cannabis delivery allows active ingredients to be absorbed directly into the blood vessels of your tongue, bypassing the digestive system. Patients who use this delivery method will place their sublingual cannabis treatment under their tongue so that mucous membranes – similar to those in the lungs – absorb the cannabis into the bloodstream.
Because this method allows the active ingredients in cannabis to bypass the digestive system, its bioavailability is higher than that of edibles and other oral cannabis treatments, allowing for faster onset and higher concentrations of cannabinoids.
The bioavailability of sublingual cannabis treatments varies, and can range from slightly higher than oral methods (about 4–20%4) to as much as 92–98% for one studied oromucosal (sublingual) prescription spray.5
Ingestion methods of cannabis consumption refer to any cannabis treatment that is consumed orally – including cannabis edibles, oils, tinctures, capsules and extracts. Oral bioavailability is lower than other delivery methods, and is said to range somewhere between 4–20%.4
Despite the lower bioavailability of oral cannabis treatments, they typically last longer than other methods of consumption,6 with peak effects occurring about two to four hours after consumption.3 Given the slower onset and longer duration of oral administration this method may be more useful for medical conditions or symptoms where control over longer periods of time is required, much like any other slow release medication.
Before you find the right dose, your doctor will also need to help you find the right type of cannabis treatment for you and your needs. One of the most important factors they will consider is the active ingredients within your cannabis, including cannabinoids like CBD and THC, other cannabinoids, terpenes and other cannabis compounds.
The active ingredients within your cannabis will influence the effects your treatment has, as well as the dose you will need to take to get relief from your symptoms. Some cannabinoids or cannabinoid combinations and doses may be more effective for relieving certain symptoms, and your doctor will help guide you to find what works for you.
Because of their varying effects, it’s important to note that when consuming THC, you may notice effects more quickly than with CBD. Finding the right balance between CBD and THC and exploring different cannabis strains, formats and dosage requirements will be an individual process.The goal is to find your optimal therapeutic window where you get the most benefit without unwanted adverse effects.
Whether you are a regular cannabis consumer or entirely new to medical cannabis, your tolerance to your prescribed treatment will impact your cannabis dose. Patients who are new to cannabis are likely to have a low tolerance, and may only need 0.1–0.5 of the starting dose of a regular cannabis user3 to feel its effects. Patients who are regular cannabis consumers may have a higher tolerance, and may be able to start on a slightly higher dose. These patients should be advised to consider their tolerance and the accumulation of THC in fat stores and adjust their dose or take tolerance breaks accordingly.
We know that regular / prolonged use of THC-containing cannabis treatments may cause patients to develop a tolerance7 to the therapeutic benefits of their treatments. The means they may stop experiencing the same results or relief that they usually would with their regular THC dose. Tolerance breaks can help patients reset their cannabinoid receptors and return to their ideal dose (or even lower) to get the desired effects from their treatment, resulting in lower costs over time and a more balanced endocannabinoid system.
Each of us – whether we consume cannabis or not – has an endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a molecular system made up of a vast network of chemical signals and cellular receptors located all throughout our brains and bodies. These help regulate and balance many processes in the body – including immune response, communication between cells, sleep, pain, appetite, hormone levels, metabolism, memory, and more.
Because no two bodies are the same, the endocannabinoid system will vary between each individual patient depending on age, sex, health, weight, illness, potential endocannabinoid deficiency and other individual factors.
For example, age and sex of individuals are important determinants for the consequences of cannabinoid exposure on conditions like anxiety, with women having an increased propensity to anxiety-related disorders and biological differences in the endocannabinoid system compared with men.8
So, because the endocannabinoid system varies from person to person, so will our individual responses to medical cannabis treatments, which interact with the endocannabinoid system in a number of ways. This is why finding the right dose for you and your symptoms is an individual process that can only be done through trial and error and with the support of a healthcare professional.
Depending on your treatment goals and the condition/s and symptom/s you are using medicinal cannabis to treat, your ideal dose may be lower or higher than that of another patient, and that’s something only you and your doctor can determine together based on your individual patient needs. So while there may be general guidelines that your doctor can follow in terms of the type of treatment, the active ingredients and the dose that might be best for your condition and symptoms, it will all come down to how you as an individual respond to your cannabis treatment once you’ve started taking it.
For example, a patient with generalised anxiety, PTSD or sleep issues may see greater results with a lower dose of CBD (e.g. 25 to 75 mg)9,10 than with a higher dose (e.g. 600 mg).11 A patient with epilepsy however, might require 300 to 1500 mg of CBD each day to reduce seizures.12 It all depends on the individual patient’s response to treatment.
By monitoring your progress (a treatment journal which measures your symptoms over time as you find your ideal treatment and dose is a great tool for this) and regularly checking in with your prescribing doctor, you should be able to find a treatment plan and an ideal dose for your treatment goals.
Titration simply refers to the process of slowly increasing your medication dosage to find the right amount of cannabis that will produce your desired therapeutic effects.
Getting to this point requires a bit of patience, especially for beginner cannabis consumers. Try and follow these steps to find your ideal dosage:
1. Start low and go slow
When you are prescribed a medical cannabis treatment, your doctor should discuss your starting dose range with you. Always start with a dose on the lower end of that spectrum and wait until the estimated onset time for your particular product has passed to see if you begin to feel any therapeutic benefits or side effects.
If you’re not feeling the desired effects, you can gradually increase your dose by an amount advised by your doctor until you find your ‘sweet spot,’ ensuring you stick to that dose for at least two to three days each time you increase to give your body a chance to adjust. This process of determining the minimal amount of your medicine that will give you your desired results with minimal side effects is known as titration.
When it comes to medical cannabis, titration also involves finding the right balance between the different cannabinoids (eg. CBD and THC) in your medications, your condition and your body’s individual response.
2. Stay consistent
Cannabinoids take time to build up their effect within your body. For best results, make sure you’re sticking to your treatment plan consistently.
3. Less is sometimes more
Depending on your condition, when it comes to dosing medical cannabis, more is not always better. For some patients living with chronic conditions, smaller doses over a prolonged period of time may be more effective than a high dose. Ensure you’re working with your doctor to figure out what dose works best for you.
4. Pay attention to your body
Like with any medicine, your ideal dosage of medical cannabis can change over time. Whether increasing or decreasing your dosage, the important thing is to listen to your body and what it needs and to check in with your prescribing doctor regularly.
In the cannabis world, microdosing refers to taking small, low dose amounts daily (or on most days). Many patients do this in order to reap the medical benefits of THC while avoiding its psychoactive effects of THC that can interfere with the demands of daily life. Depending on your symptoms and condition, some patients may see greater results from a lower THC dose than with medium or high doses. Microdosing should always be done with the guidance and support of your prescribing doctor.
Microdosing may be suitable for patients who want to get the medical benefits of their THC treatment without any of the impairing effects. Microdosing is not suitable for patients who drive on a daily basis, as it is illegal to drive with any amount of THC in your system in Australia.
Microdosing may also suit certain conditions better than others. For example, a 2012 study of patients with advanced cancer who were unresponsive to opioid painkillers found that patients who received the lowest dosage of cannabinoids (CBD/THC) showed the greatest reduction in cancer pain, while those receiving higher doses actually experienced more pain.13 Similarly, another 2014 study of 104 incarcerated male inmates with serious mental illness found that PTSD-associated symptoms like insomnia, nightmares, general symptoms and even chronic pain were significantly improved in participants who received regular, smaller doses of the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone.14
So while high doses of cannabis may be needed to treat significant symptoms or flare-ups for certain conditions, a lower daily dose or microdose of cannabis over time may actually be more suitable for maximum safety and efficacy in some patients.
To explore microdosing your treatments, you will need to talk to your prescribing doctor and work within the dosage range they recommend for your particular treatment. If you are using cannabis regularly, your doctor may advise that you take a tolerance break before starting your microdosing regime so that you can reset your cannabinoid receptors and start at a lower dose, gradually increasing until you get the minimal noticeable effect.
The way you microdose will also depend on the type of cannabis treatment you take and the method you use to take it, as well as whether you use one or a combination of medical cannabis treatments. Again, your doctor will be able to help you explore microdosing and find the lowest daily dose that works for you and your condition, so ensure you’re checking in with them regularly and monitoring your progress as you go.
There are no hard and fast rules when it comes to finding the right dose for your medical cannabis treatment, and treatment results will vary from person to person. Your best bet is to ensure you’re working with a qualified and experienced medical cannabis doctor on a treatment plan and dosing regimen that works for you. Monitor your progress, check in with your practitioner regularly and pay attention to how you’re feeling over time. With the right support, you should be able to find a dose that helps you reach your treatment goals.
Should you stick to the recommended standard dosage?
Always follow the dosage guidelines provided to you by your doctor, unless you experience unwanted side effects and need to stop your treatment (make sure you let your doctor know if this happens to you). Your doctor will provide you with a dose range to work within for your specific treatment and needs. You should start at the low end of that range and gradually increase / titrate your dose up until you get the effects you desire. Where your ideal dose ends up sitting within the standard dose range will depend on you and your symptoms as an individual.
If you reach the high end of your dose range and still don’t experience relief from your symptoms, you should reach out to your prescribing doctor for further advice on what to do. Be careful about increasing your dose beyond your recommended dose range, as this can flood your endocannabinoid receptors and create an imbalance, leading to symptoms like anxiety and sleep issues. Instead, you should talk to your doctor about other options, including tolerance breaks (if you are already a regular cannabis user), other medical cannabis formats and delivery methods, or other treatment options altogether.
Can you overdose on cannabis?
You can’t overdose on cannabis in the same way that you can overdose on other drugs or pharmacological medications, such as opioids. But it is possible to have a bad reaction or experience adverse effects, especially when cannabis use is combined with other substances like alcohol.
Cannabis compounds interact with receptors in the brain that influence things like memory, pleasure, and cognition. Unlike substances like opioids and alcohol, these molecules aren't found in areas that control breathing, meaning cannabis is unlikely to cause death on its own. Opioids can kill in high doses by binding to receptors that depress breathing, while large amounts of alcohol can similarly impair the body’s ability to control breathing.
CBD is generally well tolerated as a cannabinoid and is non-impairing, even at high doses.15 On the other hand, the effects of THC can include the ‘high’ feeling commonly associated with cannabis, and can be impairing or sedating in some people at certain doses. Because of this, THC is more likely to cause unwanted side effects like anxiety, confusion, dizziness, slower reaction times and increased heart rate at high doses. In rare cases and at very high doses it can also cause hallucinations, panic attacks, nausea and vomiting. These adverse events are highly unlikely to occur in patients who stick to the dose recommended by their prescribing doctor.
To date, there have not been any reported deaths in teens and adults resulting solely from cannabis use or toxicity.
A tolerance break (sometimes referred to as a ‘t-break’ or ‘cannabis holiday’) is when you give your body a break from your cannabis treatments for a period of time to reset your cannabinoid receptors and get the most out of your medication. We know that regular use of THC-containing cannabis treatments can cause patients to develop a tolerance to the therapeutic benefits of their treatments, meaning they may stop experiencing the same results or relief that they usually would with their regular dose of medication.1 A tolerance break helps counteract this effect by resting and resetting the receptors in your body that interact with cannabis so you can return to your preferred dose or even lower to achieve your desired therapeutic benefits.
When using medicinal cannabis to treat the symptoms of a medical condition, our goal is always to find the right type of treatment – including format, cannabinoid content and terpene profile – as well as the right dose to help you find relief while maintaining a sense of homeostasis or balance within your body. All of these factors vary depending on the needs of each individual patient, and what works best for you may not work for someone else’s symptoms or physiology.
As a medical cannabis patient, you may be prescribed any combination of CBD-only treatments, THC-only treatments, or combined treatments containing both CBD and THC, as well as other minor cannabinoids (such as CBG or CBN). The way these cannabinoids affect you and impact your tolerance varies depending on how they interact with your endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is the molecular system responsible for regulating and balancing many processes in the body – including immune response, communication between cells, sleep, digestion, stress, pain response and more. The ECS is made up of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), and the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of the endocannabinoids.
Let’s look at the different ways CBD and THC interact with our ECS and affect our cannabis tolerance.
Cannabidiol or CBD is one of the most abundant in a long list of cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant, alongside THC. Unlike THC, CBD won’t bring on a feeling of being ‘high.’ CBD is known for its calming effects on the body, with potential therapeutic benefits ranging from relieving anxiety and depression to reducing seizures, pain, inflammation and more.
We know that the cannabinoid CBD has a narrow side effect profile.2 It’s non-impairing,3 and because it works indirectly, rather than directly, with our ECS (and binds only weakly to our cannabinoid receptors) there is little risk of CBD causing an imbalance or flooding our ECS. This means that you will likely be able to maintain your ideal dose of CBD without building up a tolerance, developing unwanted side effects or needing to adjust your dose too much. If you take CBD only treatments, you may benefit from taking breaks to reset your system and help maintain the effectiveness of your treatments, if your doctor advises you to do so. There is a very low risk of experiencing withdrawal symptoms during a CBD break.
When it comes to THC, things work a little differently. THC is a psychoactive, intoxicating cannabinoid that acts directly upon the body’s ECS4 by stimulating our cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). THC’s potential therapeutic benefits range from pain and nausea relief to reducing inflammation, anxiety, insomnia and more. Because the ECS is responsible for maintaining balance and harmony in the body, the effects of THC will be dose-dependent. Meaning the correct dose of THC can help create balance, while too much THC over too long a period of time can cause an imbalance. Not only that, but research has shown that regular users of THC-containing cannabis treatments develop a tolerance to both the impairing effects, as well as the therapeutic benefits of the plant over time.This means that THC users may start to notice they are not achieving the same level of relief with their usual dose after a period of consistent use.
Thankfully, this built up tolerance is not a final, permanent state of regular cannabis consumption, but rather a temporary state of decreased sensitivity to cannabis that fluctuates depending on the pattern of cannabis use. This means that you can reset your cannabis receptors, lower your tolerance, regain your sensitivity and keep your cannabis dose within the ideal range for your needs (and your budget) by taking breaks from your treatments – with the guidance and support of your prescribing doctor.
Developing a tolerance to a substance is often associated with chemical dependence and addiction, but tolerance is not necessarily synonymous with addiction. Tolerance can occur after normal prescription drug use, recreational drug use and alcohol use. If tolerance occurs alongside more concerning signs like heavy use (i.e. beyond what is prescribed), risk-taking behaviours and neglecting responsibilities, it could indicate a more serious problem like addiction.
Medicinal cannabis is known to have a low to moderate risk of dependence that is significantly lower than alcohol, nicotine, caffeine and prescription drugs like morphine and opioid medicines.5 Taking tolerance breaks can reduce the amount of THC you need to feel the therapeutic benefits of your medicine and reduce the risk of dependence. For most people, there is a low risk of withdrawal symptoms when taking a tolerance break. Talk to your prescribing doctor if you believe you are experiencing any signs or symptoms of cannabis dependence or withdrawal before or during your tolerance break.
When you’ve been consuming THC for a while, your brain may decrease its cannabinoid receptors to try and rebalance itself. The constant activation of your ECS’s cannabinoid receptors by the THC can cause them to ‘downregulate’ and reduce their sensitivity to cannabis. This downregulation becomes cumulative when cannabis use is repeated before the cannabinoid receptors have fully upregulated after the last exposure to THC.
When you take a break from THC, you’re allowing your cannabinoid receptors to adjust and balance themselves out chemically so that you can regain sensitivity to cannabis and achieve your desired therapeutic benefits without having to increase your dose and flood your cannabinoid receptors.
Tolerance breaks can help you get the most out of your cannabis treatments in a number of ways. If you’ve developed a tolerance to the effects of your treatment, you may find that you’re needing to increase your dose of THC to high levels to find relief from your symptoms. But when you do this, you’re actually running the risk of overwhelming your endocannabinoid system.
Phytocannabinoids – like those found in cannabis, including THC and CBD – interact with our ECS and in varying ways. THC can activate specific cannabinoid receptors to produce a psychoactive effect, which may help to relieve pain, reduce nausea and vomiting, increase appetite, improve sleep and more. While CBD interacts with our opioid, dopamine, and serotonin receptors, giving it the potential to reduce pain, depression and anxiety while boosting the immune system and helping with addiction. Because THC works so directly upon the ECS and cannabinoid receptors, using too much can actually flood these receptors, potentially leading to dysregulation within the body and unwanted side effects like insomnia, anxiety and more.
Ensuring you are not overwhelming your ECS with THC by taking a break from your treatments, rather than continually upping your dose, will help maintain balance within your body. This will allow you to continue using THC to improve ECS function and assist with pain relief, sleep, anxiety and more, rather than creating dysfunction.
And because tolerance breaks can help you keep your dose at the ideal level you and your doctor will have decided upon without increasing to high levels, they can also help you make your medication last longer. This means less money spent on treatments, less scripts to fill and more benefits from your treatments over time.
If you’re not getting the same results you usually would with your regular dose of medication, it may be time for a tolerance break. Depending on your symptoms and condition, this might mean you’ve stopped experiencing the same amount of pain relief and have had to increase your dose, or you’re finding you’re more restless at night when your medication would usually be helping you sleep. You might feel your anxiety symptoms creep up or you may need to take more of your treatment to combat nausea. Or, you might just be running out of your medication earlier than expected. Whatever it looks like for you, your medication’s reduced effectiveness may be due to your built up tolerance – and it’s likely a good time to consult with your doctor about how to combat this.
Depending on your situation as a medical cannabis patient, you may be a daily user of cannabis who relies heavily on your THC-containing treatments to manage your symptoms and go about your daily life, and the thought of taking a break from them may be daunting. Or, you might find the break to be manageable. That’s why it’s so important to consult with your prescribing doctor and work out a plan for your tolerance break – including when you will take your tolerance break, how long you will take it for, how you can manage your symptoms during that time and how to resume your THC treatment at the end of your break.
Essentially, you will choose a start and end date for your break, and during that time you won’t consume any cannabis treatments.
There is no universal ideal timeframe for taking tolerance breaks, though it is generally accepted that a tolerance break should be at least 48 hours long to give your cannabinoid receptors enough time to start to reset. For long-time users who want a true reset and for THC to leave the system entirely, some patients take tolerance breaks ranging from a few weeks to a month to get back to optimal endocannabinoid system functioning. It all depends on your individual situation and your doctor’s advice.
When restarting your treatment at the end of your tolerance break, your doctor should provide you with a new starting dose that may be about half of your original dose so you can titrate up slowly to find your new ideal dose. If your new dose is the same or even lower than your original dose and you are achieving your desired therapeutic results, then your tolerance break was likely effective. In some circumstances, your doctor may prescribe a new type of cannabis treatment with varying cannabinoid ratios and terpene blends for you to try at the end of your tolerance break. This can help your receptors kick back in to get the most out of your cannabis treatments.
If you’re not already, it might also be a good idea to start taking a small amount of CBD alongside your THC treatments, or to start taking a full spectrum cannabis medicine which contains THC, CBD and a range of other beneficial cannabinoids and properties. CBD may help to mitigate or reduce the undesired effects of THC, and full spectrum medicine containing both cannabinoids can help to keep your dose of THC down thanks to the synergistic effect cannabinoids and terpenes have on the ECS. Talk to your doctor to find out if these treatments might be right for you.
The phytocannabinoids found in cannabis – like THC and CBD – are just some of a number of natural tools we can use to strengthen our endocannabinoid system and help our body achieve a sense of homeostasis (balance). When taking a break from THC-containing treatments, there are some things you might like to try to support your ECS and help manage your symptoms:
Not all of these tools will be achievable or effective for patients with severe symptoms. Talk to your doctor about ways to manage your symptoms and regulate your ECS during your tolerance break.
In addition to looking after your ECS during your tolerance break to help minimise your symptoms, you may want to pay attention to how your tolerance break affects your sleep. Many patients use cannabis treatments to help with sleep issues, and you may find that abstaining from cannabis makes it difficult to wind down at night. If this happens to you, you might like to try the following tips:
If you’re worried about how your tolerance break might affect your sleep, it’s a good idea to talk to your prescribing doctor about lifestyle, medicinal or herbal alternatives for sleep that you can rely on during your break from cannabis.
If you find your current dose of THC-containing cannabis medication is not as effective at relieving your symptoms as it usually is, it might be time for a tolerance break. As a Polln patient, the best place to go for guidance is your Polln doctor. Book a follow up consultation via your patient dashboard to talk to your doctor about what you’re experiencing, how the effects of your medication have changed and why a tolerance break might be right for you at this time.
Your doctor will help you develop a plan of action for your break – including the duration, when to take it, how to manage your symptoms and how to restart your THC treatment once you’ve finished. With your doctor’s guidance, you should be able to return to your ideal dose of cannabis treatment to get your desired results, and together you can make any required adjustments to your treatment plan so that you can get the relief you need from your treatments.
Each of us – whether we consume cannabis (aka marijuana) or not – has an endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a molecular system made up of a vast network of chemical signals and cellular receptors located throughout our brain and body. These help regulate and balance many processes in the body – including immune responses, communication between cells, sleep, pain, appetite, hormone levels, metabolism, memory, and more.
The endocannabinoid system is made up of:
Unlike the nervous system or cardiovascular system, the endocannabinoid system is not an isolated structural system located in a specific region of the body. Instead, the ECS is a receptor system broadly distributed throughout the body which is acted upon by cannabinoids and enzymes. Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors can be found throughout the brain, organs, connective tissues, glands, and immune cells.
Let’s unpack the endocannabinoid system further.
The ECS plays a vital role in our central nervous system and immune systems. Researchers have linked the endocannabinoid system to at least 15 internal processes in the body.1
All of these functions contribute to the stability and balance of your internal environment. The role of the endocannabinoid system is to ensure that when external force – such as an injury, illness or stressor – throws the body off balance, your ECS can kick in to help return your body to a state of homeostasis.
The endocannabinoid system is made up of those three core components mentioned above: endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes. Each of these components play an important role in helping our internal functions run smoothly, and are constantly working together to keep a wide range of bodily processes in balance. Let’s look at each component individually:
Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring molecules found in the body. They exist to mediate our normal physiological functions, and appear to have evolved in the brain to maintain biological harmony while also playing a role in neuronal plasticity (how the brain adapts to change).
The two major endocannabinoids that have been discovered are:
Both of these endocannabinoids help our internal functions run smoothly, and a healthy human body produces them as needed. When there is a deficiency or imbalance in our endocannabinoid production, then we may need to look at external ways to upregulate our endocannabinoid system (more on this below).
Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) are not to be confused with Phytocannabinoids which are found in plants. Phytocannabinoids naturally occur in a range of plant species, but are most commonly associated with the cannabis plant. You’ve probably heard of the popular cannabinoids, CBD and THC, however there are hundreds of cannabinoids.
Cannabinoid receptors are found on the surface of cells throughout the body. When endocannabinoids bind to these receptors, this signals to the ECS to kick-start a response. Researchers have identified two primary cannabinoid receptors within the body:1
Many tissues contain both CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors, and each is linked to a different action. Both endocannabinoids (like Anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)) and phytocannabinoids (like THC and CBD) interact with our two primary cannabinoid receptors to produce varying effects on the mind and body. More about how cannabis interacts with our CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors below.
Enzymes are molecules that accelerate chemical reactions in the body. Enzymes in the ECS are responsible for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids.2 This means that certain enzymes will help produce endocannabinoids on demand, and once they have carried out their functions in the body, other enzymes will then just as quickly break the endocannabinoids down again.
There are two main enzymes responsible for this:
Modulation of these two enzymes can up-regulate or down-regulate the endocannabinoid system by increasing or decreasing endocannabinoid levels within the body.
The endocannabinoid system works by relying on each of its components – endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes – to create balance within the body.
A typical endocannabinoid system function works when the body’s naturally produced endocannabinoids (which are present in various organs and tissues) become active by binding with a cannabinoid receptor (also located all throughout the body) to regulate a bodily function, such as digestion or sleep. Essentially, when a system or function in the body is out of balance, receptors bind to cannabinoids to help correct the problem. Once the endocannabinoid system brings the body back into balance, enzymes will break down the cannabinoids to prevent overcorrecting the problem.
Let’s look at an example: if your body is experiencing pain, then a signal may be sent to enzymes to synthesise (produce) the endocannabinoid 2-AG. The 2-AG may then bind with and activate the CB1 receptors and/or the CB2 receptors3 to relieve the sensation of pain4 without interrupting other important bodily functions, such as temperature regulation, digestion and more. Once the body has been brought back into balance, the enzyme MAGL will then rapidly degrade the endocannabinoid 2-AG to avoid overcorrecting the problem and creating an imbalance in the body. It is this process that helps other functions of the body run smoothly even when the body is experiencing disruptions such as pain, inflammation or a fever.
When it comes to conditions like chronic pain, anxiety, or inflammatory diseases where the endocannabinoid system has not managed to bring the body back into balance and reduce symptoms, then it may be worth investigating whether an endocannabinoid deficiency or ECS dysregulation is contributing to these symptoms and looking at ways to upregulate the ECS to provide relief (more on this below).
There are hundreds of cannabinoids found in cannabis. The most popular and well-known are CBD and THC, followed by CBN, CBC and CBG. Because these phytocannabinoids have a similar chemical structure to our endocannabinoids, they have the potential to aid internal processes and mediate physiological functions when taken correctly and responsibly – especially under the guidance of a prescribing doctor.
Phytocannabinoids like THC, CBD and CBN interact with our endocannabinoid system in varying ways:
THC has been shown to work directly with the ECS by activating the CB1 receptors in the brain, producing a psychoactive effect. This may help relieve symptoms of pain, reduce nausea and vomiting, increase appetite, improve sleep, and more in some patients. It’s important to note that because THC works so directly upon the endocannabinoid system via the CB1 receptor, using too much THC can actually flood the CB1 receptors, potentially leading to increased anxiety, impaired memory and slow reaction times. This is why it’s so valuable to undergo cannabis treatment with the support of a prescribing doctor who can tailor a cannabis treatment plan to your exact needs, symptoms and individual circumstances. Learn more about THC tolerance and how THC interacts with the endocannabinoid system by heading to our Tolerance Breaks article.
CBD works indirectly with the ECS to interact with our opioid, dopamine, and serotonin receptors, giving it the potential to reduce pain, depression and anxiety while boosting the immune system and helping with addiction. CBD is more likely to bind to the CB2 receptor, but it does not bind to the CB1 receptor like THC does. Because the stimulation of the CB1 receptors is what causes the ‘high’ associated with cannabis (an unwanted side effect for some), CBD taken without THC does not cause this effect. CBD may also work by preventing endocannabinoids from being broken down, allowing them to have a greater effect on your body. For example, CBD has been found to inhibit the activity of the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme,5 which breaks down the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Because anandamide levels play a key role in memory, mood, appetite, sleep, and pain relief, CBD’s inhibition of the enzyme that breaks it down may aid these functions while stimulating a sense of happiness and mental wellness.
One of the lesser known (but no less important) cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant is CBN, short for ‘cannabinol.’ CBN is known to have anticonvulsant, sedative, and other pharmacological activities6 that are still being explored. CBN is created during the breakdown of the psychoactive cannabinoid THC.
Like THC, CBN also binds to the CB1 receptor, but at a much lower strength than THC.7 This technically makes it a psychoactive compound, but it doesn’t produce much of a ‘high’ sensation that some patients may experience with THC. CBN has a stronger affinity towards the CB2 receptors, which are mostly associated with immune system regulation.7
Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency8 (CECD) is a term coined by neuropharmacologist Dr Ethan Russo in the early 2000s in an attempt to explain the potential therapeutic effects of cannabis in treating certain treatment-resistant conditions. The theory suggests that a low functioning endocannabinoid system – which may look like low endocannabinoid levels, an overabundance of metabolic enzymes or some other ECS dysfunction – could contribute to the development of certain chronic conditions such as:
A 2016 article reviewing over 10 years of research on the endocannabinoid system and its relationship with IBS, fibromyalgia and chronic migraines, suggests that endocannabinoid deficiency may explain why some people develop some of these conditions.9 However, much more research is needed before we can come to a definitive conclusion.
If you develop issues with sleep, chronic pain, menstrual pain, unmanageable stress, IBS symptoms, migraine, depression or any other issues relating to bodily functions that are regulated by the endocannabinoid system, this may be a sign of endocannabinoid deficiency or dysregulation. Unfortunately, there is no definitive cause of CECD and the concept is still very much a theory which requires more robust research to be better understood. If you’re ever unsure, always speak with a qualified healthcare professional about your conditions and symptoms.
If you have a chronic condition with symptoms that are resistant to other types of treatment, such as pain or anxiety, you may want to explore medicinal cannabis as a potential treatment option with a prescribing doctor. Medicinal cannabis may be beneficial for patients who have some kind of endocannabinoid dysfunction, which has been seen in endometriosis patients, fibromyalgia patients and more.
Ultimately it will be up to a prescribing doctor to determine whether cannabis may be right for you and your condition. A cannabis clinician with experience in cannabinoid medicines is your best bet for getting specialised advice and a treatment plan that meets your therapeutic needs. An experienced cannabis clinician should be able to determine which cannabinoids and other cannabis compounds would benefit you and your symptoms, as well as your ideal type of cannabis treatment, the method you use to take it and at what dose.
There are a number of ways we can naturally regulate our endocannabinoid system to achieve balance in the body and treat potential endocannabinoid deficiencies. Some of these methods include:
Although there is still much research to be done, studies to date strongly suggest that the endocannabinoid system plays a vital role in our central nervous system and immune systems. This means that maintaining a balanced and functioning endocannabinoid system is essential for good health. Lifestyle changes like diet, exercise, stress reduction techniques and herbal medicines can be used to help upregulate the endocannabinoid system and drive a range of health benefits, while cannabinoids like THC and CBD can be useful in helping to correct potential endocannabinoid deficiencies where other treatments have failed.
At Polln, all of our doctors are experts in cannabinoid medicines who understand the therapeutic implications of medicinal cannabis. They can determine your suitability for medical cannabis and tailor a treatment plan with your individual needs, symptoms and potential endocannabinoid deficiencies in mind.
To talk to an expert in medicinal cannabis, sign up as a Polln patient today.
CBD oil, also referred to as cannabis oil or medicinal cannabis oil, is derived from the cannabis plant. The ‘CBD’ in CBD oil stands for cannabidiol, which is a natural cannabinoid found in the plant.
Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds found in cannabis, alongside terpenes (plant compounds responsible for aromas and flavours), flavonoids (plant compounds associated with various health benefits), fatty acids, and other materials.
CBD oil contains high levels of CBD and can vary in levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the cannabinoid that produces a high because of its psychoactive properties, and other cannabinoids or compounds. There are 3 different types of CBD oil:
With so many CBD oil products now available in Australia, it can be confusing to differentiate between them. Often, the blanket term ‘CBD oil’ is used to refer to all of these products, which can make it hard to find the exact medical cannabis products you’re after.
People tend to use the term CBD oil to refer to medical cannabis oils in general, which isn’t entirely accurate. It’s important to make a distinction between the different types of CBD oils, as they all serve different functions.
CBD Isolate is the purest form of CBD. It doesn’t contain any of the other cannabinoids (such as THC) present in the cannabis plant, or terpenes, flavonoids, and fatty acids. As CBD Isolate only contains CBD, it is often well tolerated by most patients with very few adverse effects1.
CBD Isolate is produced using the same extraction methods of other types of CBD oils, the only difference is that it goes through a final process called winterisation. During winterisation, the oil is dissolved in ethanol at sub-zero temperatures, which separates the compounds to allow them to be filtered off. What is left is pure CBD Isolate.
Full Spectrum CBD uses the entire plant extract and contains the complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds that are found naturally in the plant. This includes trace amounts of THC (less than 0.3%), which is unlikely to produce any psychoactive effects. This is important to note if you ever need to drive (learn more about driving and medicinal cannabis here.)
It has been found that the complete assortment of compounds found in Full Spectrum CBD can help achieve better medicinal and therapeutic outcomes than CBD alone – this is known as the entourage effect.
Broad Spectrum CBD sits somewhere between Full Spectrum and CBD Isolate. It is essentially the same as Full Spectrum CBD, however in the final stages of extraction, it has had trace amounts of THC removed. This means patients who are prescribed Broad Spectrum CBD can reap the benefits of having a range of cannabinoids, terpenes and other compounds (aka the ‘entourage effect’) without feeling the psychoactive effects of THC and are able to drive (learn more about driving as a medical cannabis patient in Australia).
Both Full Spectrum CBD and Broad Spectrum CBD contain cannabinoids other than just CBD. Technically speaking, this means they’re more than just 'CBD oils', however they still fall under this definition in the realm of medical cannabis.
Cannabis flower is the flower of the female cannabis plant that has been harvested. Unlike CBD oil, cannabis flower is unprocessed and less manufactured.
CBD oil is usually consumed either sublingually (under the tongue) or orally. Oral or sublingual medicinal cannabis products have been shown to be better for chronic conditions, and ongoing pain that needs to be treated over a longer period of time2. This is because the cannabinoids are absorbed by the body slower, with effects that last longer.
The recommended method of consumption for cannabis flower is inhalation using a TGA-approved medical vape. Inhalation allows the cannabinoids to absorb directly into the bloodstream from the lungs, making it the ideal method for patients who require rapid relief for short-term pain or conditions2.
The terms CBD oil and hemp oil are sometimes used interchangeably, but to be clear, we use the term CBD oil in Australia when referring to medical cannabis oil. Some people mistakenly buy hemp oil thinking it is high in CBD, but it is not.
Hemp oil is made from hemp plants that have very low concentrations of cannabinoids. CBD oil comes from cannabis plants that have large, cannabinoid-containing flowers3. The only way to get oil that is high in CBD is to get a prescription for CBD oil (learn more about accessing medicinal cannabis here).
Hemp seed oil is a different thing entirely from both hemp oil and CBD oil. Hemp seed oil is produced through cold pressing hemp seeds, is consumed for its vitamins and antioxidants, and contains no traceable amount of cannabinoids.
CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from cannabis plants. The way that CBD oil is extracted can have an effect on the final product that is created, changing everything from its purity to its therapeutic and health benefits.
There are a few ways that CBD is extracted from plants. These include:
Before going into detail about the potential benefits of using CBD oil (CBD Isolate, Broad Spectrum CBD, and Full Spectrum CBD), it’s important to understand how CBD oil works with our bodies.
One of the main systems for regulating processes and biological changes in our body is the endocannabinoid system. This system is made up of three key parts: endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes.
Our bodies naturally create endocannabinoids, which travel and bind to the many receptors available to help regulate us when our natural state of being – called homeostasis – is disrupted.
There are two main types of receptors in our bodies. CB1 receptors are found in the central nervous system, and CB2 receptors are found in the peripheral nervous system. After an endocannabinoid binds to a receptor and carries out its function, enzymes break it down.
The effect that occurs after an endocannabinoid binds to a receptor depends on the type of receptor, and which endocannabinoid it binds to. CBD is unique because it doesn’t interact directly with our receptors. Instead, experts believe4 it works by slowing down the decomposition of endocannabinoids, which means our bodies can feel their effects for longer. THC and other cannabinoids can bind to both CB1 and CB2 receptors, which produces a range of different outcomes when it comes to their potential therapeutic and health benefits5.
Because of how they interact with our endocannabinoid system, CBD oils may be able to help our bodies manage inflammation and disruptions to our nervous system more efficiently. Because of this, some potential benefits of medical cannabis may include:
Various studies have found that CBD oil can help relieve symptoms of anxiety and other mood disorders in some patients, including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder, when administered acutely6.
This 2020 study7 into the antidepressant and antipsychotic effects of CBD found that CBD oil may interact with serotonin receptors in the brain in such a way that it can assist with regulating the mood of patients and treating depression, though more research is needed in this space.
Given how CBD interacts with the central nervous system, it may help with improving sleep quality by helping relieve symptoms of anxiety disorders, which tend to be related9. In a study10 of 24 participants over two weeks, participants reported an improvement in the time taken to fall asleep, time spent asleep, and feelings of being more rested and refreshed on waking.
Although chronic pain is one of the top reasons for medical cannabis use in Australia, there is still a lot more research that needs to be done. A study led by the Australian Government Department of Health found that medical cannabis was more likely than a placebo to produce 30% and 50% reductions in pain scores in patients with chronic pain due to conditions like multiple sclerosis and fibromyalgia, and more likely than a placebo to produce a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity ratings11.
Though there have been a fair few studies done on the pain relieving effects of medicinal cannabis, more research needs to be conducted to reach a conclusive decision about the validity of it12.
The best way to take CBD oil is to drop the oil under your tongue (sublingually). This allows the oil to absorb faster into our bloodstream through your sublingual glands, which are found under your tongue. This is different to ingesting CBD oil, which goes through your gastrointestinal system and can take much longer to be absorbed by your body.
While CBD oil is typically used for long-term relief, cannabis flower can be used as an optional additional potential treatment for breakthrough pain or for patients who need more rapid relief.
When it comes to consuming all types of medical cannabis treatments, it’s important to start low and go slow and always follow the appropriate dosing prescribed by your healthcare professional so you minimise any potential negative side effects.
At the time of writing this, you can only legally buy CBD oil in Australia with a prescription (learn more about medicinal cannabis access in Australia here). There are two main methods of getting a prescription.
1. Special Access Scheme (SAS)
You can speak with your current doctor or healthcare professional who has a comprehensive understanding of your medical history. They will review your request and submit your diagnosis to the TGA, alongside a clinical justification for the prescription, any supporting evidence and details on how you will be monitored throughout your treatment. Unfortunately, many GPs aren’t well informed or prepared to go through this process with patients, so this pathway might not always be accessible. If you are unsure whether your current GP can help you access medical cannabis, you can make an appointment to speak with one of our expert Polln practitioners who are experienced in prescribing medical cannabis treatments.
2. Authorised Prescriber
You can speak with an Authorised Prescriber (AP), who is a specialist doctor that has already received authority from the TGA to write prescriptions for medicinal cannabis. These practitioners don’t need to apply for approval from the TGA for individual patient prescriptions as they are pre-approved. One of the benefits of taking this pathway is that APs are experts in prescribing medicinal cannabis and can write prescriptions as soon as they have assessed your eligibility – this means you’ll experience none of the wait time associated with the SAS pathway. An issue that arises when considering this route is that it’s not always easy to know if there is an AP located near you. At Polln, we’re breaking down this barrier by working with APs who know how to support patients through their journey with medicinal cannabis.
You may have heard that CBD oil has been approved for over-the-counter (OTC) use, however, you can’t actually purchase CBD products without a prescription in Australia13. This is because so far no specific products have been approved for the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG), which is a requirement for OTC sales in Australia.
You may notice many online stores are now selling unregulated CBD oil products to ‘cash in’ on the rise in popularity of CBD oil. It’s important to understand that if you purchase nonprescription CBD products online that actually contain CBD, this is technically illegal in Australia, and comes with quite a large risk. The alternative is you’re buying CBD oil that doesn't actually contain CBD, which is just as bad.
Because CBD oil and other medicinal cannabis products are prescription medicines they need to follow strict protocols during manufacturing, to make sure the end product is consistently produced. These same protocols aren’t implemented with black market products, and regulating them is practically impossible. There are limited quality control measures, and as a result, the end product could contain dangerous byproducts and contaminants. If you’re thinking of buying CBD oil online, it’s important to keep in mind that such a product has not been approved by the TGA. Learn more about legal vs. illegal cannabis in Australia here.
As with any treatment, the best way to ensure you’re getting what you need in terms of quality and effectiveness is to speak with a qualified specialist doctor. Sign up as a Polln patient to discuss your options and suitability for medicinal cannabis with one of our expert cannabis clinicians.
Vaping is the process of heating cannabis flower or extract at a high temperature without burning it, allowing cannabinoids and terpenes to be released in the form of a vapour, which is then inhaled.
Vaping is one of two inhalation methods for consuming cannabis flower, alongside smoking. In medicinal contexts, vaping is preferable to smoking because it reduces the amount of undesired hydrocarbons being absorbed into the body while also alleviating the need for tobacco, which can lead to addiction and other serious health issues. Vaping also allows for a more precise dose to meet the therapeutic needs of a patient, given that less of the THC dose is lost in side stream/combustion.
As of 2022, flower has become the second most approved form of medicinal cannabis (also referred to as ‘medical marijuana’ – learn about the history and implications of this term here) product in Australia.1 This implies that a large number of patients are using an inhalation method to consume their cannabis medication.
Inhalation delivery methods, like vaping, allow cannabinoids to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream through the lungs, making this the preferred method for patients who require rapid relief of symptoms.
To vaporise cannabis, you’ll need a device known as a vaporiser (or vape). While a vaporiser can include any device that releases a particular substance in the form of vapour, doctors will generally recommend a medical-grade dry herb vaporiser for use with medicinal cannabis. Dry herb vapes allow you to vape cannabis flower without burning it so that the plant’s oils can be released as a vapour. With a dry herb vape, the patient receives only the bioactive cannabis compounds needed to experience the medicinal benefits of cannabis – and none of the chemicals or additives that might be found in some other types of commercially available vapes, such as vape pens and cartridges.
When using a dry herb vaporiser, you can also vaporise your prescribed cannabis flower at the optimal temperatures for cannabinoid and terpene activation by using the vaporiser’s temperature setting. This makes it easy to control your experience by adjusting the temperature of your vaporiser to the boiling points of terpenes and other compounds within your cannabis flower to achieve desired benefits.
As always, you should follow the specific instructions for your vaporiser as well as your doctor’s advice for using your vaporiser and treatment and only use your medication as prescribed.
It is legal to vape medicinal cannabis in public smoking areas. There are no laws which prohibit the use of medical-grade vaporisers for consuming legally prescribed medicinal cannabis treatments as long as you are in a public smoking area and are not causing a disturbance to others in your proximity. This means that because your cannabinoid medication is a highly regulated substance prescribed to you only, you will need to ensure you are at a safe distance from others, especially children, who may inhale your medication passively.
You should always carry your medication in its original packaging with the pharmacy label attached as well as any documentation (such as your script and/or approval letter) and identification that can verify your legal patient status if you are stopped or questioned by law enforcement.
The patient guidance section of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) website states that cannabis flower treatments or ‘raw (botanical) cannabis’ should be ‘vaporised but not smoked’ for medicinal purposes. Therefore Polln does not recommend smoking your cannabis treatments anywhere, including in public smoking areas, as it is not supported by the TGA.
Some of the benefits of vaping medicinal cannabis flower, as opposed to smoking it, include:
Vaping comes with its own risks and side effects. It's important to discuss your suitability for vaping with your prescribing doctor and only use your cannabis treatments and vaporiser as advised.
Although smoking is the most common route of administration for non-medical cannabis use, it is not recommended for medical cannabis patients due to the health risks and the variability and unpredictability of each individual’s response. Here are some things to consider when it comes to smoking medical cannabis treatments:
Overall, vaporising cannabis results in similar rapid absorption and high blood concentrations as smoking it, but produces fewer toxins, poses less health risks (when a high quality dry herb vaporiser is used), is more cost-effective over time and leads to greater therapeutic outcomes.
Always follow the advice of your doctor when it comes to how you administer your cannabis medication and only use your treatments and devices as advised.
Although vaping cannabis – particularly with a TGA approved vaporiser – is known to be safer than smoking, it can still come with health risks. In comparison with smoking, vaporisation has been shown to produce the purest stream of cannabinoids and terpenes while containing less than 1/1000th the hazardous substances associated with combustion.6 But not all vaping devices are created equal.
The negative health risks associated with vaping, which include lung injuries, headaches, heart issues and more, are often related to the use of illegally manufactured vape products7 and vape products with chemical profiles that are closer to that of e-liquids. Illegally manufactured or modified vape products and vape products containing harmful chemicals such as vitamin E acetate significantly increase your risk of damaging your lungs. While harmful by-products, including microbial contaminants, harmful chemicals, carcinogens, and addictive substances like dextromethorphan, are often found in black market cannabis oils, unapproved vape pens, cartridges and e-liquids. Vaporiser injuries from unapproved vapes can also range from burns to accidental liquid ingestion and a lung disease known as 'popcorn lung.'
To be safe and effective, prescribed cannabis flower should be vaporised using a TGA-approved dry-herb vaporiser within the correct temperature range as advised by your prescribing doctor.
Knowing the different boiling points of the various cannabinoids, terpenes and other properties within your cannabis flower will help you adjust your vape temperature for the safest and most beneficial experience. Set your vape temperature too low, and you run the risk of missing out on the potency and unique flavours of your cannabis flower, as certain compounds will not have reached the minimum temperature required for them to activate. Similarly, if you set your vape temperature too high – especially at temperatures higher than 230°C – you run the risk of inhaling more toxic compounds and degrading the active ingredients in your cannabis so that they are no longer beneficial to your health.
The optimal temperature range of vaping cannabis is between 180–210°C – but there is room for experimentation within this temperature range to find what works best for you and the ingredients in your flower. While cannabinoids like THC and CBD will ‘activate’ or ‘evaporate’ at lower temperatures within this range, terpenes like linalool or limonene have a higher boiling point, meaning they activate at higher temperatures within that optimal range. So if you’re looking to reap the benefits of specific compounds within your cannabis, you might like to investigate the boiling points for each of those and play around with your vape temperature, with the support of your prescribing doctor.
Storz & Bickel, owned by Canopy Growth Corporation, are currently the first and only TGA-approved medical vaporisers available in Australia to be used with cannabinoid medicines. These devices are included in the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) (ARTG Identifier 319028) and are available for purchase at Shop Polln.
The VOLCANO MEDIC can be used with dried cannabis flower or liquid cannabinoids dissolved in alcohol. It is a desktop vaporiser which can be used at home, in hospital settings and in medical practices. In one 2016 study, the VOLCANO MEDIC was one of 4 electrically-driven and temperature-controlled vaporizers that were found to “efficiently decarboxylate acidic cannabinoids and release reliably the corresponding neutral cannabinoids into the vapour,”8 suggesting that the device may be a safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis and cannabinoids.
Always use your cannabinoid medicine and devices as advised by your prescribing cannabis doctor.
Vaping is just one of a number of delivery methods used to administer cannabis medications. It is known to be safer than smoking while providing greater control over therapeutic benefits and being more discreet and more cost-effective over time. Vaping may be beneficial for patients who require rapid relief from their symptoms, as effects can be felt within minutes. Although vaping with a TGA-approved vaporiser is legal in public smoking areas, you should always keep your medication in its original packaging with the pharmacy label attached and carry your script and identification so you can verify your patient status. And always be mindful of people around you who should not be able to inhale your medication passively.
At Polln, all of our doctors are experts in medicinal cannabis treatments who can help determine which, if any, medicinal cannabis treatment may be right for you while guiding you in the use of any required devices, such as a medical vaporiser. If you are interested in talking to a doctor about medical cannabis, you can sign up as a patient and make an appointment with one of our Polln doctors today.
Anxiety is an extremely prevalent mental health condition affecting millions of Australians daily. With symptoms ranging from excessive worry and restlessness to panic attacks and sleep disturbance, it’s no wonder so many Australians are turning to a wide range of therapies to help manage their condition.
Anxiety is among the top conditions that cannabis is prescribed to help treat in Australia.1 In this article, we’ll break down why medicinal cannabis is becoming such a popular treatment for anxiety and how it can help reduce anxiety symptoms in some patients.
Anxiety is the body’s physical response to a real or perceived threat. Everyone experiences anxiety from time to time, it can even help us avoid danger in some real-life situations. But for some people, anxious feelings and symptoms don’t go away. They stick around even when there is no real or immediate threat to that person. Anxiety can affect concentration, sleep, relationships and the ability to carry out daily tasks. When anxiety is a problem that persists without the presence of a real or immediate threat, it is generally categorised as an anxiety disorder.
Anxiety disorders are the most common group of mental health conditions in Australia and affect 1 in 4 Australians2 at some stage in their life.
The common types of anxiety disorders are:
In some people, anxiety may also be linked to an underlying health issue. For some, this may mean anxiety signs and symptoms are the first indicators of a medical illness. Conditions associated with anxiety can include chronic pain, IBS, drug or alcohol dependence or withdrawal, thyroid problems, heart disease and diabetes. Certain medications can also cause anxiety in some people.
Some of the physical symptoms of anxiety can include:
People who have anxiety may also avoid certain situations, such as crowds or social events, and may experience constant feelings of fear, racing thoughts, difficulty concentrating and memory disturbances.
Anxiety symptoms may also vary depending on the type of anxiety disorder someone has, for example:
Treatments for anxiety are dependent on the patient’s needs, as well as the type and severity of anxiety being experienced. Anxiety treatment may include psychological therapy, lifestyle changes (including sleep, nutrition and exercise), meditation and mindfulness and/or medication, or any combination of those treatments.
The Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists recommends cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as the first line treatment for generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.14 Research shows that CBT is one of the most effective treatments for anxiety, and for preventing future anxiety.15 CBT treatment involves implementing strategies to change unhelpful thinking patterns and behaviours. It is generally conducted by a trained therapist over 6 sessions or more, and may be used alongside other therapy types, such as exposure therapy or interpersonal therapy.
Pharmacological treatments like antidepressants and tranquillisers are also commonly prescribed to treat symptoms of severe anxiety, panic and stress. For some, these medications can be extremely valuable and even life-saving. They can help patients go about their lives and participate in situations that their anxiety previously prevented. But for others, these treatments come with a wide range of unwanted side effects that make them intolerable.
These can include:
Potential adverse side effects of antidepressants:
Potential adverse side effects of long term use of tranquilisers
The range of negative side effects that standard pharmacological treatments for anxiety can elicit in some patients has led many to seek alternative medicines and options for treatment, from herbal solutions like kava, ashwagandha and lavender supplements to alternative prescriptions like medicinal cannabis.
Anxiety is the second most common condition3 that medicinal cannabis (sometimes referred to as ‘medical marijuana’, learn about the history and implications of this term here) is prescribed to treat in Australia. Both THC- and CBD-dominant cannabis treatments are prescribed to help treat symptoms of anxiety. A 2018–2019 survey4 of 1388 Australian respondents who were self-medicating with (mostly illicit) cannabis also found anxiety to be the most common ‘main condition’ being treated with cannabis.
While there is conflicting information surrounding cannabis and anxiety, we know that many patients benefit from using medicinal cannabis to treat their anxiety and those that do maintain an ongoing medicinal cannabis treatment plan for anxiety do so because they prefer these treatments to standard or conventional treatments they have previously tried.
For others, cannabis may not be an effective treatment for anxiety or it may even increase anxiety in some patients. It comes down to the individual, the type and severity of the anxiety, and the type of cannabis medication prescribed to that patient.
One rationale for the use of medicinal cannabis for treating anxiety symptoms stems from the way cannabis interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is a biological system present in all humans (and nearly all animals) which regulates numerous physiological processes including mood, appetite, sleep, cognition and immune function. Our ECS and the physiological processes it regulates can be supported through a range of methods and lifestyle changes, including eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, drinking less alcohol and consuming cannabinoids. Preclinical research5 also suggests that the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis (including THC and CBD) can support the production and release of endocannabinoids which may have efficacy in treating anxiety disorders. However more clinical research is required in this area. Learn more about your endocannabinoid system.
CBD and CBD oil treatments may help manage the symptoms of anxiety in some patients. CBD has been shown to have anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) potential in numerous studies, including a 2015 review6 of 49 primary preclinical, clinical, or epidemiological studies supporting CBD as a treatment for generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder when administered acutely.
This study’s preclinical evidence conclusively demonstrated CBD’s efficacy in reducing anxiety behaviours relevant to the above anxiety disorders with a notable lack of anxiogenic (anxiety causing) effects.
In 2022, the Cannabidiol Youth Anxiety Pilot Study7 conducted by Orygen also found that CBD may be effective in halving the severity of symptoms and impairment caused by chronic anxiety. The study involved 31 participants aged 12–25 who were recruited from Orygen’s primary care services. The participants had a diagnosed anxiety disorder and had failed to show significant improvement in anxiety severity following at least five cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) sessions.
“Young people with treatment-resistant anxiety had an average 42.6 per cent reduction in anxiety severity and impairment following 12 weeks’ treatment with cannabidiol – a non-intoxicating component of the Cannabis sativa plant which is often referred to as CBD.”
– Orygen, 2022
Orygen’s pilot study found that CBD not only helped to reduce anxiety symptoms, but was also very well tolerated. They noted that they “did not see side-effects like suicidal thoughts, irritability or sleep problems, which are not uncommon in people taking SSRIs.”
CBD works to reduce anxiety in a number of ways. It can activate our serotonin receptors,8 modulate the potential anxiety-inducing effects of THC (thanks to the entourage effect) and reduce the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme9 that breaks down one of the body’s own important endocannabinoids – anandamide – which stimulates feelings of happiness and mental wellbeing. Anandamide deficiency has been shown to be a predictor of stress-induced anxiety, with decreased anandamide corresponding to increased anxiety-like behaviours.10 So CBD’s ability to prevent a decrease in anandamide levels makes it a promising treatment for anxiety disorders.
Like with any medication, the effects of CBD will vary depending on the individual and the dose taken.
Like CBD, THC has been shown to have the potential to treat anxiety, depending on the individual patient and the prescribed dosage. A 2019 analysis of 83 eligible studies11 found that ‘pharmaceutical THC (with or without CBD) improved anxiety symptoms among individuals with other medical conditions (primarily chronic non-cancer pain and multiple sclerosis).’ While another 2019 review12 of the evidence supporting the use of THC in PTSD found emerging evidence for positive effects on sleep, nightmares and global PTSD symptoms.
So while there is less evidence to support the use of THC-dominant formulations for anxiety disorders, there is stronger emerging evidence supporting its use in patients with PTSD, as well as anecdotal patient accounts of THC’s efficacy in treating anxiety symptoms.
Unlike CBD which works indirectly with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and our cannabinoid receptors, THC acts directly upon the body’s ECS13 by stimulating our cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Because the ECS is responsible for maintaining balance and harmony in the body, the effects of THC will be dose-dependent. Meaning the correct dose of THC can help create balance, while too much THC can cause an imbalance (and potentially increase anxiety). With the help of a prescribing cannabis doctor, therapeutic benefits for anxiety can be achieved by finding the right dose of THC for an individual patient.
It’s important to note that THC can exacerbate anxiety under some conditions and in some patients, and that there are driving restrictions for patients taking THC medications.
Terpenes are the organic, aromatic compounds found in plants in the form of oils. Essentially, they are what gives a plant its unique flavour and aroma. The cannabis plant alone contains more than 150 terpenes. But beyond just influencing the cannabis plant’s unique taste and smell, terpenes also play a significant role in the therapeutic effects of cannabis by interacting with cannabinoids and other cannabis compounds to create subtle differences in our experience.
On their own, there are a number of terpenes which can reduce anxiety, including linalool (found in lavender, rose and basil), limonene (found in lemon and citrus fruits), beta-caryophyllene (found in black pepper and cloves), myrcene (found in mango, thyme and lemongrass) and more. Each of these terpenes (and many more) can also be found in the cannabis plant. And by interacting with the range of cannabinoids and other compounds found within cannabis, terpenes can create or emphasise particular medicinal or other types of effects, opening up a world of therapeutic combinations for anxiety and many other conditions (again, thanks to the entourage effect).
Just like cannabinoids, your doctor can help you choose an appropriate cannabis treatment based on its terpene profile and the effects these terpenes may have on your specific symptoms or condition. So, if you’re interested in cannabis treatments for anxiety, we highly recommend talking to your doctor about which terpenes and medicinal cannabis formats might be best suited for you and your condition.
Now that we know medical cannabis has the potential to help treat anxiety in some patients, you might be wondering about some of the conflicting information you’ve seen around whether cannabis can actually cause or increase anxiety in some people.
The simple answer is: yes, cannabis has the potential to cause or increase anxiety in some patients, depending on the type and dose of cannabis administered.
Let’s break this down into CBD and THC:
CBD → We know now that CBD is a known anxiolytic. Meaning it reduces anxiety with a lack of anxiogenic (anxiety causing) effects. CBD has a narrow side effect profile and does not cause the ‘high’ or any of the impairing effects that are typically associated with certain doses of THC. For these reasons, CBD is not a cannabinoid that is generally known to cause anxiety when taken at recommended doses (which all doctors will follow when prescribing cannabis treatments).
THC → THC is also commonly prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and has been shown to be effective for sleep, relaxation and PTSD. But because THC interacts so directly with the cannabinoid receptors within the endocannabinoid system, it has a stronger impact on the body’s ability to regulate anxiety and may even cause or increase anxiety when taken at too high a dose. With the help of a prescribing doctor, patients can mitigate these side effects by finding the correct product, strain and dose to achieve reduced anxiety levels through their medicinal cannabis treatment plan. But as with any medication or treatment plan, results will vary depending on the individual patient.
Cannabis medicine is not a one-size-fits-all approach. This means most doctors will take a unique approach to treating each individual patient they see. Often, doctors will prescribe a combination of THC and CBD to help treat a patient with anxiety. But this will depend on individual factors such as the patient’s driving status and sensitivity to THC.
Here are some examples of how doctors may prescribe cannabis to help treat anxiety:
Oral cannabis formats (oils, capsules, tablets, edibles): Often prescribed for ongoing anxiety and may contain just CBD or a combination of THC and CBD and other cannabis compounds such as terpenes. It’s common for doctors to prescribe a CBD only or high CBD cannabis treatment during the day to avoid impairment and then a THC/CBD treatment at night to support sleep – these are likely to be in an oil format. The effects of cannabis oils typically last longer than flower, about 6–8 hours.
Cannabis flower (for inhalation with a vaporiser): May also be prescribed for acute anxiety (such as panic attacks) due to rapid onset of effects. For individuals who are sensitive to THC, a high dose CBD flower may be prescribed. The effects of inhaled flower typically last shorter than oils, about 1–2 hours.
To be eligible for medicinal cannabis access as a patient in Australia, the TGA states that you must have a chronic medical condition (lasting 3 months or more) that conventional treatments have failed to treat and/or caused you unwanted side effects. Conventional treatments for anxiety may include any combination of psychological, pharmacological, lifestyle, herbal and other treatments that are commonly used to treat anxiety. So, if you have had chronic anxiety symptoms for 3 months or more and you are not satisfied with your current or past treatments, you may be eligible for medicinal cannabis access.
If you are interested in exploring medical cannabis treatment options for anxiety, the first thing you’ll need to do is talk to a doctor. Our Polln practitioners are experts in medicinal cannabis who can help determine whether cannabis is a suitable treatment option for you, and which type of cannabis treatment might be right for the type of anxiety disorder you’re experiencing.
While cannabis is not a first line treatment in Australia, it is also not a last resort. Meaning you do not need to have exhausted all of your treatment options to be eligible for medicinal cannabis access. If you’re not sure whether you might be eligible, you can take our free eligibility quiz or sign up as a Polln patient to discuss your options with one of our expert doctors.
Learn more about medicinal cannabis access in Australia.
In Australia, anxiety is the second most common presentation for medicinal cannabis prescriptions3. Whenever a patient presents with symptoms of anxiety, I refer to the RANZCP Anxiety Clinical Practice Guidelines. The important questions I consider include:
If a patient presents with an anxiety disorder such as generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, or panic disorder, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the recommended first line treatment. If symptoms are severe, an assessment by a psychiatrist for diagnostic clarification and consideration of adjunct medications such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (or SSRIs) to help the patient engage in CBT is recommended14. Although CBT +/- SSRIs help to achieve remission of anxiety for the majority of patients, a significant number of patients do not achieve remission of their anxiety3.
Currently as per the RANZCP guidelines, "There remains insufficient evidence to provide guidance on the use of cannabinoids for treating mental disorders within a regulatory framework."Recent meta analyses and systematic reviews looking at the therapeutic role of medicinal cannabis for mental health disorders have found that “the trial evidence to date is patchy, low quality and at high risk of bias”. There is some evidence to support the use of CBD to treat anxiety symptoms at certain doses, and the use of THC in treating PTSD symptoms. However, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of THC for treating anxiety disorders with a risk of increasing anxiety due to the psychoactive effects3. Hopefully, as more quality research on using medicinal cannabis as treatment for mental disorders becomes available, clinical guidelines can be developed to provide clinicians a framework for prescribing more safely and effectively.
Anecdotally, some patients have reported benefits with CBD and THC products to help relieve their anxiety symptoms where evidence based modalities have been ineffective. Some patients have also reported an increase in anxiety symptoms with the use of CBD and THC products, in some cases this has been strain dependent. Although medicinal cannabis has been a useful tool for anxiety symptoms as reported by some patients, it can also be used as an avoidance tool, which will likely make the anxiety symptoms worse with time if the underlying cause of the anxiety is not treated. As such, it is recommended that appropriate therapy, such as CBT for anxiety disorders, remains the mainstay of treatment. It is also important to note that medicinal cannabis does not replace current recommended pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders e.g. SSRIs, especially if symptoms are severe or co-morbid diagnoses are present.
Mental health conditions like anxiety can be complex diagnostically and therapeutically. Seeking advice from psychiatrists and psychologists can be extremely helpful for identifying the underlying source of the anxiety and ensuring appropriate evidenced based treatments have been considered.
As a medicinal cannabis patient with a valid, legal prescription, you are entitled to carry your medication between all states and territories in Australia. But before you travel, there are some things to keep in mind to help you carry your medications safely and responsibly.
In this article, we’ll answer your questions about travelling as a medicinal cannabis patient in Australia.
As long as you have a legal prescription from a qualified doctor or healthcare practitioner, you are allowed to travel with your prescribed cannabis medications between all states and territories in Australia. This includes all legally prescribed cannabis medication types, including oils, flower, tablets, wafers and more.
Whenever you’re travelling with your cannabis medications, you should keep them in their original packaging with the pharmacy label attached and carry a photo ID which matches the name on the label. It’s also a good idea to have your prescription handy should you need to verify your patient status. If you’re a Polln patient, these will be readily available via the ‘Documents’ and ‘Prescription’ sections of your Polln patient dashboard.
Yes. As a patient, you are allowed to carry your medicinal cannabis treatments onboard when flying between states in Australia. Again, just make sure your medication is in its original packaging with the pharmacy label attached and bring photo ID and any relevant scripts to support the fact that you are carrying these treatments legally.
If you’re at an airport, you may still encounter sniffer dogs or law enforcement, especially if you’re travelling with cannabis flower. But, as long as you have your valid prescription and proof of patient status with you, you are permitted to travel with those treatments.
There are no specific guidelines as to whether you should carry your cannabis medication with you onto the cabin or put it in your checked luggage. You may prefer to keep your medications handy in your carry-on baggage in case you need to take them at the airport or during your flight, or if you’re worried about your luggage going missing. Or, you may be comfortable having your medications in your checked luggage. Either way, you still run the risk of being stopped or having your baggage searched, so always ensure you have documentation to support your legal patient status.
There are airline restrictions for travelling with personal vaporisers. Most airlines require these devices to be in your carry-on baggage and prohibit their use and charging during the flight. Check with your airline prior to flying to find out what their rules are for travelling with personal vaporisers.
Legally, you are allowed to carry anything that has been prescribed by your doctor for the treatment of your medical condition. While vapes are not prescribed, if you have a legal vaporiser device that has been authorised or recommended for use with your medication by your doctor, you should be okay to travel with this.
Polln highly recommends that medicinal cannabis patients who are prescribed a flower for vaporisation use one of the devices listed on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG), including the Volcano Medic, Mighty Medic or Mighty+ Medic by Storz & Bickel.
When it comes to flying with your vape, airlines will have specific rules and guidelines around what you can and can’t do. Most airlines require personal vaporiser devices to be in your carry-on baggage and prohibit their use and charging during the flight. Check with your airline prior to flying to find out what their rules are for travelling with personal vaporisers.
If you’re taking a form of cannabis medication that does not need to be vaporised, such as an oil, topical or a wafer tablet, then you can take your medication just as you would any other medication, based on your prescription and treatment plan. This means you shouldn’t encounter any issues when medicating in public, including at the airport, so long as you can verify your legal patient status if needed.
If you’re vaping in a public smoking area, you will just need to be cautious and ensure no one else is around that could inhale your medication vapour by being in proximity to you. As your medication is prescribed for you and you only, you do need to make sure it is not affecting those around you and only vape in non-crowded public smoking areas or in private.
Remember that driving with any amount of THC in your system is currently illegal in all states, except Tasmania. So if you are travelling by car or vehicle in any state except Tasmania, you will need to ensure you do not have THC in your system.
While travelling, it’s always best to keep your medicinal cannabis treatments in their original packaging with the pharmacy label attached. This will ensure that if you are stopped or have your baggage checked, you can verify your patient status by matching your photo ID to the patient name on the pharmacy label and the medication names listed on your prescription can be aligned with those on the packaging.
As much as possible, you should try to maintain the quality and efficacy of your medication by storing your medication correctly while you travel. For cannabis flower, that means minimising exposure to heat, light and air. For all other medication types, that simply means following the storage guidelines on your medication label.
Ensure you have an adequate supply of your medication to cover you for the duration of your trip – based on your dosing and treatment plan – and take into account any delays you may experience.
If you are a Polln patient who needs to access your medication while travelling, you can easily access repeat scripts and arrange express treatment delivery to wherever you are in Australia by using your Polln patient dashboard or contacting the Care Team. You can also book and attend online consultations from wherever you are, in case you need to speak to your doctor on the go.
Because cannabis laws vary so much between countries and states, flying internationally with medical cannabis as a patient can be both difficult and risky. Before you leave Australia you should contact the Embassy or Consulate of the countries you intend to visit, including any countries where you will have a layover between flights, to find out what restrictions they have for travelling with cannabis medicines. Each country has its own required documentation for customs clearance when carrying medicinal cannabis, and some prohibit medical cannabis entirely.
If you will be away for an extended period of time, you should talk to your doctor about whether you will be able to access your medications should you need them while overseas. If you are unable to bring your cannabis treatments with you or access them while on your trip, you can also talk to your doctor about how to navigate being without your treatments for that period of time.
If you're travelling with medicinal cannabis as a legal patient in Australia, here are the main things to keep in mind:
If you’re a Polln patient, you'll have easy access to all of your medical cannabis services, including prescriptions, online consultations, Australia-wide express treatment delivery and more, from wherever you are in Australia. So, you can rest assured that your patient documents, doctor’s guidance and cannabis treatments are always just a few clicks away.
If you have repeat scripts on file, the Care Team can arrange invoices and express treatment delivery to wherever you are in Australia. While online consultations can easily be accessed on the go should you need to speak with your doctor or arrange new scripts.
We highly recommend talking to your doctor about travelling with your medications within Australia so you can travel with confidence. All Polln practitioners are experienced cannabis prescribers who can provide guidance specific to your treatment plan and needs when it comes to travelling as a medical cannabis patient.
If you have any concerns about travelling with your prescribed medications or vaporiser, you can also contact the Care Team for further support.
As of 2022, there have been more than 248,000 scripts approved1 for medicinal cannabis (also referred to as ‘medical marijuana’ – learn about the history and implications of this term here) since it was legalised Australia-wide in 2016.
If you’re one of the thousands of patients living with a chronic condition in Australia who have received a medicinal cannabis prescription, it’s important you’re aware of the rules, risks and restrictions that exist if you are going to drive. Especially if you have been prescribed a cannabis treatment containing THC.
In this article, we’ll answer your questions about driving as a medical cannabis patient in Australia.
Because no two patients are the same, the question of whether or not you should drive while taking medicinal cannabis treatments will also vary from patient to patient, depending on the effects you experience while taking your treatments. Currently in Australia, it is legal for you to drive as a medical cannabis patient as long as you have no amount of the cannabinoid THC in your system. But there are a few other things to consider when deciding whether or not to drive while taking your treatments.
Any time you take your prescribed (non-THC) cannabis treatments or any other medication or legal substance that has an effect on the mind and body, you should wait until you are confident that you are safe to drive and you are not experiencing any impairment or adverse side effects before you do so. You should not drive while impaired by CBD or any substance – even if it is legal for you to have it in your system. So if you are experiencing any symptoms like dizziness, low blood pressure or drowsiness while taking your treatments, you should always consider whether it is safe for you to drive and wait until the effects have worn off and you are feeling better before you get behind the wheel.
The most important restriction to note is that it is currently illegal to drive with any amount of THC in your system in Australia (except Tasmania), even with a valid prescription. This means that if you are prescribed a medicinal cannabis product containing THC, you will need to wait until the medication has left your system before you drive. This is challenging given that the amount of time cannabis stays in your system can vary from patient to patient and is dependent on factors like the type of cannabis consumed, the amount of THC in the cannabis, the method used to consume it and the frequency of consumption. But under the current laws in Australia, if you take a medication containing THC and test positive for THC in a mouth swab test, you can lose your licence.
CBD-containing cannabis treatments that do not contain any THC are legal to have in your system while you drive. You should always know which cannabinoids are in the cannabis treatments you are prescribed and understand the driving restrictions that exist for those treatments as well as the effects you experience when you take them. Some CBD treatments – like CBD oils – do contain THC, while others don’t. Check your treatment label and talk to your doctor before you drive while taking any cannabis treatment.
Even if your prescribed treatment doesn’t contain any THC, you should always pay attention to the effects you experience while taking it and ensure you aren’t driving while impaired. While CBD tends to have a minimal side effect profile, it can cause side effects like drowsiness and fatigue in some patients. Always make sure you feel safe, alert and confident before you get behind the wheel and wait for side effects to wear off before driving.
No. It is not legal to drive with any amount of THC in your system in all states in Australia, even if you are a medicinal cannabis patient with a valid prescription. If you choose to take THC or do not wait long enough for the THC to leave your system before you drive and you test positive for THC in a mouth swab test, you can lose your licence.
These laws exist because THC is a psychoactive cannabinoid which can affect cognitive and motor skills that are needed for safe driving, including attention, judgement, vision, coordination and memory. However, because THC can be detected in the body for up to weeks after the initial cannabis consumption, these laws can unfortunately unfairly discriminate against legal medicinal cannabis patients who may face fines and loss of their licence even when they are unaffected and unimpaired by their medication at the time of testing. In fact, cannabis is the only legally prescribed medication for which you lose your licence when testing positive for presence, not impairment (except in Tasmania). Tasmania is the only state in Australia that allows unimpaired drivers who have been legally prescribed medicinal cannabis to lawfully drive.
Any substance that has an effect on the mind and body is capable of affecting your ability to drive. This is true of both legally prescribed and recreational substances, as well as both plant-based and standard treatments. So any time you start a new medication or substance, change your dose or make any changes to your treatment plan, you should always wait and ensure you are not experiencing any effects or side effects which may impact your ability to drive before getting behind the wheel.
When it comes to measuring cannabis impairment, science tells us that there are several factors which play a role – including dose, mode of ingestion, length of treatment and individual factors like weight and metabolism. In 2020, a landmark study led by the Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics at the University of Sydney and conducted at Maastricht University in the Netherlands found that CBD does not impair driving, while moderate amounts of THC produce mild driving impairment lasting up to four hours.2 A 2022 study led by the same group found that 1500mg, the highest daily medicinal dose of cannabidiol (CBD), has ‘no impact on people’s driving or cognitive abilities.’3
The results from these studies reassure us that patients using CBD-only products are most likely safe to drive, and help us understand the duration of impairment for patients using THC-dominant products. But since driving laws in Australia use a zero-tolerance policy for THC in drivers, the law still dictates that patients consuming THC should not be driving.
Another 2022 study4 conducted by researchers at the University of Sydney’s Lambert Initiative which analysed all available studies on the relationship between driving performance and concentrations of THC in blood and saliva found ‘blood and oral fluid THC concentrations to be relatively poor or inconsistent indicators of cannabis-induced impairment.’ This is in contrast to the much stronger relationship that can be seen between blood and alcohol concentrations and driving impairment.
– Lead author Dr Danielle McCartney, Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics
So while this research does not suggest there is no relationship between THC intoxication and driving impairment, it does call into question the validity of the methods used to assess cannabis-related impairment in drivers in Australia. This highlights the need for more reliable methods of assessing cannabis-impairment in drivers and a reform of the cannabis-driving laws which unfairly impact patients who are using legal medicinal cannabis products who cannot currently drive, even when they are not impaired.
The findings of this study were reported on The Project, Network 10:
If you take a medicinal cannabis product which contains none of the cannabinoid THC, such as a CBD-only oil, then it is safe for you to drive provided you are not experiencing any adverse side effects like dizziness or low blood pressure. You only need to wait until you are certain you are not experiencing any side effects which impact driving before you get behind the wheel. CBD-only products will not show up on a drug test and it is legal for you to drive after taking these.
If you take a medicinal cannabis product containing THC, the answer to this question is a little more complicated. Because it is illegal to drive with any amount of THC in your system, and because the amount of time it takes for THC to leave your system varies so much from person to person, there is no definitive answer to how soon you can drive after consuming THC. Although the above research tells us that the impairing effects of THC fade after four hours of having consumed it, Australian police test for THC presence – not impairment – when drug testing drivers. So it’s important to understand how long cannabis can stay in your system before you drive as a cannabis patient who consumes THC.
Unfortunately there is no definitive answer to this question, as it varies from individual to individual depending on a range of factors, such as:
Generally, random roadside saliva tests can detect THC for about 12 hours5 after use in people who use cannabis less frequently. But for those who frequently use cannabis, such as medicinal cannabis patients who use cannabis to help treat chronic conditions, THC can usually be detected for around 30 hours5 after use. Again, these numbers will vary from person to person.
For other types of drug tests, which may be required in certain workplaces or other settings, cannabis can be detected in your system for even longer, including up to 6 days for blood tests,6 up to a month for urine tests5 and up to 3 months for hair tests.7
Because it is so difficult to know when and if you might legally be able to drive after consuming THC, if you are a medicinal cannabis patient who has to drive frequently for work or other activities, you may want to consider a CBD treatment rather than a THC one under the current driving laws in Australia. Ensure you are open and honest with your prescribing doctor about your driving status and current situation so they can provide you with a treatment plan that works best for you.
Drive Change is an Australian law reform campaign fighting to give medicinal cannabis patients the same rights as other patients. They are a team of educators and advocates who believe that current drug driving laws ‘fail to improve road safety, discriminate against medical cannabis patients and impede public health outcomes.’
Drive Change proposes equal rights for legal medical cannabis patients through the following solution:
‘The government implements Australia-wide uniform drug driving laws to allow for a complete defence to the presence of THC in a driver’s oral fluid or blood when:
Visit Drive Change to learn more about how you can support the campaign and help create equal driving rights for legal medical cannabis patients.
Click on these resources to learn more about the local driving laws in your state:
New South Wales
Knowing whether or not you should drive as a medicinal cannabis patient can be difficult. But no matter what your situation is, you should never drive while impaired. Patients who take THC-free / CBD-only medicinal cannabis products can safely and legally drive provided you are not experiencing any adverse side effects that might impede driving ability. But patients taking THC medicinal cannabis products can face fines and even the loss of your licence if any amount of THC is detected in your system in a roadside test.
It’s important that you’re aware of the cannabinoids / ingredients in your prescribed cannabis treatment and any driving restrictions that exist for your treatment in Australia. You should always be honest and open about your driving status, situation and needs as a patient so your doctor can provide you with the best care possible and tailor a treatment plan that works for you.
Help create equal driving rights for legal medical cannabis patients by visiting Drive Change.
There are currently over 830,000 people living with endometriosis in Australia.1 Symptoms of endometriosis can be extremely painful and debilitating for those who live with the condition, often causing them to miss out on social, work or other engagements. Without a cure, these symptoms often need to be managed through medical or surgical interventions.
In this article, we’re answering your questions about how medicinal cannabis (also known as ‘medical marijuana’) may be able to help treat the symptoms of endometriosis in some patients – especially severe or chronic pain caused by inflammation and other associated symptoms like poor mental health, sleep issues, gastrointestinal issues and nausea and vomiting.
Endometriosis is a progressive, chronic condition whereby some of the cells similar to those that line the uterus / womb – known as the endometrium – grow elsewhere in the body, especially in the pelvis. These cells respond to messages from the ovaries, despite not being in the uterus, leading to endometriosis tissue bleeding every month when a person has their period.
This can be extremely painful, affect fertility and prevent those who have the condition from participating fully in their lives. Over time, the condition can cause inflammation and scarring and even cause adhesions, whereby organs stick together in certain places.
About 1 in 9 menstruating people in Australia1 develop endometriosis by the time they are in their 40s, causing tens of thousands of hospitalisations every year. There is no known cure for endometriosis, but some symptoms can be managed through a variety of interventions.
Medical cannabis is commonly prescribed to treat some of the symptoms associated with endometriosis and is known to be an effective treatment for many patients.
A 2017 Australian survey of 484 participants2 aged 18–45 and suffering from endometriosis found that one in ten participants used cannabis to treat their symptoms, citing good efficacy in reducing pain and other symptoms with few adverse effects. Pain reduction, as well as improvements in sleep, nausea and vomiting were the main reasons cited for self medicating with cannabis, with 56% of participants using cannabis having been able to reduce pharmaceutical medications by at least half.
In a separate 2021 study of 252 participants with endometriosis3 cannabis was found to be effective for pelvic pain, gastrointestinal issues and mood, with effectiveness differing based on method of ingestion (such as inhalation or other oral methods).
Each of us has an endocannabinoid system (ECS) and cannabinoid receptors all over the body, mainly in our central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and organs. These receptors have also been found in the endometrium and gut linings. Research4 has shown that the endocannabinoid system plays a part in endometriosis, making cannabis treatments (which interact with the endocannabinoid system in numerous ways) valuable treatments to explore when looking at endometriosis.
The two main cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant are THC and CBD, both of which interact with the cannabinoid receptors found in our body and ECS to produce varying effects. Both THC and CBD can have benefits in the treatment of endometriosis.
Cannabis is known to have anti-inflammatory properties and studies have shown it is beneficial in treating chronic pain,5 anxiety6 and depression.7 Inflammation, chronic pain and associated comorbidities like mental health issues, anxiety and depression are all symptoms experienced by many living with endometriosis, so cannabis is a viable treatment option for these symptoms.
Like any medication, medical cannabis will work differently for everyone. Depending on the severity of your condition, the type of treatment prescribed and the individual way it interacts with your body, you may or may not find medical cannabis to be an effective treatment for your endometriosis symptoms.
Medical cannabis treatments prescribed in Australia can generally be classified as being high THC, high CBD or a combination of THC and CBD, whereby effects will vary depending on the ratio of THC to CBD.
Depending on your medical history and the symptoms you’re experiencing, your doctor may prescribe you a cannabis treatment from one or more of these categories in the format of an oil, flower, or other delivery format. The most common medical cannabis treatment prescribed for endometriosis is a CBD oil taken orally.
CBD and CBD oils are known to have anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic properties, which makes them effective at reducing the pain that many endometriosis patients experience, given inflammation is one of the main reasons patients with endometriosis experience pain.
In Australia, chronic pain patients make up around 60–70% of medicinal cannabis prescriptions.8 So while there is limited research about endometriosis and CBD specifically, we know that many patients in Australia benefit from taking medicinal cannabis treatments like CBD and CBD oil for pain (there is some discussion around the efficacy of varying ratios of THC to CBD in treating endometriosis symptoms in this aforementioned study3).
THC is known for its analgesic and psychotropic properties and is also known to have positive effects in treating many types of pain. In a study which looked at endometriosis in mice,9 THC was found to have analgesic and antispasmodic properties while also inhibiting the development of endometrial cysts. More studies are yet to be done on the effectiveness of THC in inhibiting endometrial cyst development in humans, but these findings are promising.
Scientists and those in the medicinal cannabis industries believe that using the whole plant – including a range of cannabinoids like THC and CBD, terpenes and other compounds – offers greater health benefits than using specific cannabinoids in isolation. This is known as the ‘entourage effect.’
Like any medication, whether it’s natural or pharmacological, medical cannabis treatments can cause unwanted side effects in some patients.
CBD has a narrow side effect profile, whereas THC can cause more side effects in certain patients. Some patients may experience things like fatigue, dry mouth, lightheadedness or nausea when starting medical cannabis treatment, or other effects which will vary from person to person. With the support of a prescribing practitioner, patients will often be able to resolve these side effects through correct dosing and titration. When taken in conjunction with THC, CBD can help mitigate the negative side effects associated with THC, especially rare symptoms of anxiety (thanks to the entourage effect!).
Currently, Australian law states that it is illegal to drive with any amount of THC in your system, even if you have a valid prescription and regardless of whether you are impaired or not. This is something patients should consider if they are thinking about accessing medical cannabis treatments for endometriosis.
Patients with endometriosis often have to manage their symptoms through a combination of lifestyle adjustments, natural medicines, pharmaceutical medicines and surgical interventions. This can look like taking herbal or other supplements, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) like Ibuprofen and Voltaren or adopting other pain relieving or lifestyle adjustments, such as dietary changes.
However, a large number of endometriosis patients require stronger painkillers, oral or intrauterine contraceptive methods, progesterone hormonal interventions and laparoscopy surgeries to remove endometriosis lesions. A laparoscopy is the only form of treatment that changes the physiology of your body (addressing the root cause), whereas all other forms of treatment support in reducing symptoms.
Each of these interventions comes with a range of side effects that many patients find intolerable, which may lead to them seeking out other alternative treatments to help manage symptoms, such as medicinal cannabis. Here are some of the side effects patients with endometriosis report experiencing from conventional treatments:
Many patients who use medicinal cannabis to manage the symptoms of endometriosis, especially chronic pain, report experiencing fewer side effects than those seen with their conventional treatments.10
To be eligible for a medical cannabis prescription, the TGA states that a patient must:
If you’re one of the 830,000+ Australians living with endometriosis and you’ve tried one or more of the conventional treatments listed above, or any other treatment, you are likely to be eligible to access medicinal cannabis to help manage your endometriosis symptoms.
The first thing to do is to talk to your doctor about wanting to try medicinal cannabis. If you’re unsure whether your current doctor can help you access medicinal cannabis, you can book a consultation with one of our Polln Practitioners who specialise in these treatments to discuss whether they might be right for you.
Research has shown11 that a significant number of Australians living with endometriosis use cannabis illegally to manage their symptoms. While this demonstrates just how beneficial many patients find cannabis to be in managing their symptoms, it also shows us that many are finding the Australian medical cannabis industry to be too inaccessible, expensive or difficult to navigate and are instead opting for illegal cannabis products purchased online or via the black market.
Because recreational cannabis is unregulated in Australia, there’s a big risk that your therapeutic goals will not be met by the product you buy without a prescription. This is because the active ingredients in unregulated products have varied concentrations, may differ from what you’ve been told they are, or in some cases may not be present at all.
When taking cannabis to treat a specific medical condition like endometriosis, it’s important to know exactly which cannabinoids are present within your cannabis, and at what quantity and ratio. Getting a prescription for medicinal cannabis from a licensed healthcare professional is the best way to ensure you’re getting quality, regulated medicine containing the active ingredients you need to treat your condition.
While the pathways to access medicinal cannabis haven’t always been clear, things are definitely changing.
At Polln, our biggest mission is to make alternative treatments like medical cannabis more accessible to patients living with debilitating chronic conditions, including endometriosis. If you’re unsure whether your current doctor can help you access medicinal cannabis, you can book a consultation with one of our Polln Practitioners who specialise in these treatments to discuss whether they might be right for you.
Consider making a donation to help end endo at https://endoaustralia.org.au/
Chronic pain syndrome is a condition affecting millions of Australians daily. About half of all medicinal cannabis patients in Australia are prescribed cannabis treatments to help relieve the symptoms of chronic pain. 1
In this blog post we’ll explore what chronic pain is and how medicinal cannabis (also known as ‘medical marijuana’) can help relieve pain and discomfort in some patients.
Chronic pain is defined as pain that lasts for at least three months. It may be a consistent or intermittent pain that comes and goes without apparent cause, and it can occur in nearly any part of your body. Chronic pain is distinct from acute pain – such as pain from an injury that develops quickly and then subsides – in that it persists beyond the normal healing time of an injury or illness.
There are several different types of chronic pain, including bone, muscle or joint pain, nerve pain and pain due to cancer. Some of the most common types of chronic pain include:
Chronic pain can be caused by an illness such as migraine, arthritis or a musculoskeletal condition, or may be a lingering result of an injury or surgery. However, sometimes there is no apparent cause of chronic pain, making treatment extremely difficult.
The signs and symptoms associated with chronic pain will depend on the type of chronic pain you are experiencing. For example, if you have chronic pain in your lower back, you may experience pain that runs from the lower back and down your legs, while an injury or issue in the neck may cause pain in various other parts of the body. Other symptoms associated with chronic pain may include:
Acute pain, such as pain from an injury, surgery or illness, can develop into chronic pain syndrome if left untreated or not treated correctly. The longer acute pain remains untreated, the greater the risk of the pain becoming chronic and more difficult to treat.
If you are experiencing pain that persists beyond the normal healing time of an injury or illness, or that has no apparent cause, is worsening or is not responding to simple treatment, then it may be time to see a doctor.
While there are no definitive guidelines for when to seek help for pain or chronic pain, if the pain is persistent and is impacting things like your mood, quality of life and sleep, then a visit to the doctor might be needed to help determine the cause and appropriate treatment for your pain.
The main goal in chronic pain treatment is to treat the underlying cause of the pain, rather than just the pain symptoms. This means there are a range of surgical and non-surgical treatment methods employed to treat chronic pain, depending on the cause of the pain itself. Non-surgical treatments like physiotherapy and both over-the-counter and prescription medications are some of the most common treatments for chronic pain.
All medications can cause adverse side effects, from over-the-counter medications like ibuprofen to stronger prescription pain medications like opioids. When it comes to pain relief medication, opioids in particular are associated with a range of mild to severe adverse effects – from dizziness and nausea to dependence and fatal overdose. In fact, in 2018 opioids accounted for just over 3 deaths per day in Australia, with the majority of these opioid-induced fatalities being unintentional overdoses involving the use of pharmaceutical opioids, often in the presence of other substances.2 It is for these reasons that opiate medications are not always seen as a suitable or preferable treatment option for many patients suffering from chronic pain, leading some patients to seek alternative therapeutic options.
About half of all medical cannabis patients in Australia are prescribed medical cannabis to treat chronic pain symptoms, making chronic non-cancer pain the number one category for medicinal cannabis approvals in Australia. The treatment of chronic pain with medicinal cannabis has been shown to result in improved pain and functional outcomes. With one 2016 study of 274 participants3 finding that medical cannabis reduced pain symptoms, pain severity and pain interference with daily tasks in most patients, and even resulted in a significant reduction in opioid use.
In 20174 the Australian Government Department of Health commissioned a team from the University of New South Wales, University of Sydney and University of Queensland under the coordination of the National Drug and Alcohol Council (NDARC) to review the available evidence for the use of medicinal cannabis in patients with chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP).
A meta-analysis of all randomised studies in CNCP averaging across all medicinal cannabis treatments indicated that “medicinal cannabis was more likely than placebo to produce 30% and 50% reductions in pain scores and more likely than placebo to produce a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity ratings.”
The TGA has approved medicinal cannabis as a treatment for over 130 conditions, including chronic pain. The types of chronic pain cannabis may treat are nerve pain, arthritic pain, cancer pain and musculoskeletal pain. However, there is no specific list of conditions or types of chronic pain that the TGA has approved for medical cannabis treatment. This means that a prescribing doctor will need to assess you on an individual basis to determine whether medicinal cannabis treatment may be right for you and your chronic pain symptoms.
The two main cannabinoids found in cannabis – cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – can help with relieving pain both on their own and when taken in conjunction. Depending on the individual patient and their symptoms, condition and type of chronic pain, a doctor may prescribe CBD, THC or a treatment containing both cannabinoids to help relieve pain symptoms.
Here are some of the varying ways THC and CBD interact with the body to relieve pain in some patients:
Like any medication, cannabinoid treatments may not work for everyone and are not guaranteed to relieve chronic pain symptoms.
In some patients, using a combination of CBD and THC may lead to a better result and greater relief from their symptoms – this is known as the ‘entourage effect’ where different components of the cannabis plant work synergistically to enhance their overall therapeutic benefits.
To be eligible for medicinal cannabis access as a patient in Australia, the TGA states that you must have a chronic medical condition (lasting 3 months or more) that conventional treatments have failed to treat and/or caused you unwanted side effects. Therefore if you have had chronic pain symptoms for 3 months or more and you are not satisfied with your current or past treatments, you may be eligible for medicinal cannabis access.
If you are interested in exploring medical cannabis treatment options for chronic pain, the first thing you’ll need to do is talk to a doctor. Our Polln practitioners are experts in medicinal cannabis who can help determine whether cannabis is a suitable treatment option for you, and which type of cannabis treatment might be right for the type of chronic pain you’re experiencing.
While cannabis is not a first line treatment in Australia, it is also not a last resort. Meaning you do not need to have exhausted all of your treatment options to be eligible for medicinal cannabis access. If you’re not sure whether you might be eligible, you can take our free eligibility quiz or sign up as a Polln patient to discuss your options with one of our expert doctors.
‘Cannabis’ and ‘marijuana’ are terms used more or less interchangeably in the cannabis industry, but a growing debate has emerged around the use of the term ‘marijuana’ within industry and healthcare settings.
At a time when cannabis arrests still disproportionately affect minorities, when racism continues to have an effect on cannabis research1 and when racial bias in healthcare leads to poorer outcomes and lower-quality care for racial and ethnic minorities, is it time for the industry to retire a word with a discriminatory past?
Historian, scholar and author Isaac Campos attributes the origins of the word marijuana to botanists conducting research in Mexico in the 1850s. In his book, Home Grown: Marijuana and the Origins of Mexico’s War on Drugs, Campos found that these early researchers discovered that the local population had begun referring to the plant previously known as ‘pipiltzintzintlis’ by a new name – ‘mariguana’ – which would then go on to ‘conquer the lexica of most of the Western Hemisphere.2 The exact origins of the word prior to this usage are unknown.
So while the term has been abused for political aims and to stigmatise and incite xenophobia against the plant and the people associated with it since the 20th century, marijuana is itself a term indigenous to Mexicans that did not originate as a slur, one that has had cultural and historical validity since at least the 1800s.
Throughout the 19th century, medical journal articles, news reports, advertisements and medication packaging in the West almost exclusively used the terms ‘hemp’ and ‘cannabis’ to refer to the plant. It wasn’t until the early 20th century that the term ‘marijuana’ came into use in the US, namely because anti-cannabis groups sought to frame cannabis as a threat to American notions of whiteness and purity of the time. Thus the term was intentionally used to align the cannabis plant with Mexicans and Mexican-Americans in order to play off anti-immigrant sentiments, incite xenophobia and demonise the plant.
Prior to the 1930s, the term held few negative connotations. But this incitement of fear and bigotry by anti-drug campaigners, coupled with the 1925 Geneva Convention and global moral panic surrounding the drug itself, played a large part in the resulting state restrictions of the plant before it was federally prohibited in the US. This then contributed to the ongoing and disproportionate criminalisation of racial minorities who use the drug, despite usage rates being almost the same between white and non-white people.
The cultural position and intent of the speaker as well as the context they are in are important things to consider when we look at who is using the term ‘marijuana.’ Is the term being used to celebrate or appreciate its origins? Is it merely being used to describe the plant? Is it being appropriated by a business or brand to sell a product? Or, is it being used as a slur or a way to demonise the plant or the person consuming it? These questions, alongside the question of who is speaking, can help us to understand when the term might be appropriate, and when it might be offensive.
Something important to consider here is that unlike some slurs – which often have offensive origins but may have been reclaimed by the community they once targeted (for example, the word ‘queer’) – the term marijuana did not originate as a slur. It is only through its discriminatory usage by white people in positions of power that the word developed its problematic history. It is understandable then that many would object to the use of the term by people and organisations who hold privilege or power, who are ignorant to the word’s problematic history, or who use the term without acknowledging its past and the ongoing discrimination that has resulted from it.
For many communities – especially those disproportionately affected by cannabis stigma and criminalisation – ‘cannabis’ is not a word people feel connected to, whereas ‘marijuana’ may hold more cultural and historical significance. It can be argued that labelling the term marijuana as racist or cancelling the term altogether would both alienate these communities and erase the complicated history of the term and the impact it has had on them.
Today, in Australia and across the world, many still use the term ‘marijuana’ or ‘medical marijuana’ when searching for information about cannabinoid medicines and treatment. By erasing the word marijuana altogether, healthcare providers and medicinal cannabis companies risk losing a portion of their audience – that is, patients who may not be able to find accurate, up to date information about the options available to them. It’s important then to consider how we in the industry use language to talk about our products and services, so that they remain accessible to all who need them.
Ultimately, it is up to the people and communities most impacted by the discriminatory use of a term to determine how it should be used, and who should use it. But these communities are not a monolith, and there is no singular answer to the question of whether the term ‘marijuana’ is an offensive one. Ongoing discussions around the language and words we use, how we use them, and how their meanings may evolve over time are essential in order to acknowledge the harms that have been caused while working towards a more inclusive, just and safe future for cannabis patients and users in Australia and beyond.
At Polln, our biggest mission is to make natural therapies more accessible to the patients who need them while overcoming the stigma and biases that exist for medicinal cannabis patients and patients from all backgrounds who seek to access the quality care they need. We do this by prioritising diversity and inclusion at all levels of our business – from our doctors to our Care Team, business leaders and coordinators – and by putting our patients’ needs above all else.
While we as a team are predominantly ‘cannabis-first' when we talk about cannabinoid treatments and therapies, we acknowledge the need to make our services and content as inclusive as possible. With marijuana still being a highly searched term, we will use it from time to time throughout our Library to include those patients who may be searching for valuable health information about these treatments. With this article, we hope to provide some context and educate our community on the history of the term so that they can make informed decisions about the language they choose to use when they talk about cannabis.
As a business in the healthcare and medical cannabis industries with an understanding of our privilege and position, we do not wish to claim, misuse or appropriate the term ‘marijuana’ by using it to talk about medicinal cannabis in Australia. Instead, we opt for the scientific name – ‘cannabis’ or ‘cannabis sativa’ – throughout our website, services and patient interactions. We will always remain open to the discourse surrounding this topic and encourage our patient community to do the same! And, as always, we welcome all thoughts and feedback.
To learn more about our values and commitment to a more inclusive healthcare, head to our About page.
Like any plant, as soon as the cannabis plant has been harvested and is no longer receiving nutrients from the root it was once attached to, it begins to degrade.
Once your flower has been harvested, dried and prepared for medicinal use, its optimal freshness zone becomes a finite window that can only be extended through proper storage methods.
Knowing how to keep your flower fresh will help you ensure your medicinal cannabis treatments maintain their quality and efficacy over time, allowing you to get the greatest therapeutic benefits out of your medication.
1. Light: studies have found exposure to sunlight and UV rays to be the leading factor in cannabinoid deterioration once cannabis is harvested. Keep your cannabis fresh by storing it in a cool, dark place away from sunlight, or in a UV-proof storage container.
2. Air: exposure to oxygen greatly accelerates the degradation process of cannabis, so it's best stored in an airtight container (or, even better, one with an airtight vacuum seal).
3. Humidity: the ideal relative humidity zone for cannabis is 59–63%. Storing your cannabis at this humidity level will prevent it from becoming either too dry (which weakens the bud structure) or too moist (which makes it susceptible to mould). Again, storing your cannabis in an airtight container in a cool, dark place will help you maintain an ideal humidity level.
4. Temperature: Cannabis is best stored at or below 21°C. To maintain the quality of your flower, never store cannabis treatments near heat or above kitchen or other appliances, as the heat will rise and cause your flower to dry out. You should also avoid storing your cannabis treatments in the fridge or freezer, as fluctuating temperature and humidity can reduce its quality and cannabinoid content and increase the risk of mould.
5. Odour: if you need to store your medicinal cannabis treatments discreetly, you may want to opt for a smell-proof storage container that contains the odour of the cannabis flower. Odour-proof storage can help keep your medicinal cannabis treatments safe and out of the wrong hands.
At Polln, we want to ensure our patients get the most out of their medicinal cannabis treatments. We've partnered with Staze because their vacuum seal jars are among the best methods of storage for maintaining cannabis quality, efficacy and cannabinoid content. Meaning our patients get the therapeutic experience and benefits they deserve. Every time.
With such a wide range of cannabis brands and packaging coming out in Australia, we discovered that many of our patients were finding it more difficult than it needed to be to carry or have a smaller dose available while keeping their treatments discreet and out of the wrong hands (and away from children). This was especially true for patients receiving treatments packaged in large mylar bags! After receiving this feedback, we wanted to provide our patient community with a storage option that maintains their plant’s integrity and quality and protects the flower from being crushed while remaining discreet and odour-proof.
With a considered design that eliminates exposure to light and air and prevents odours from escaping, Staze ensures the work your cannabis growers put in, stays in.
Get to know Staze at Shop Polln.
If you’ve been prescribed another type of cannabis treatment, such as an oil or a capsule, you will simply need to follow the storage instructions written on the box or packaging that your medication came in from the pharmacy.
You will likely not need to explore alternative storage options like you might use for cannabis flower, but instead focus on storing your treatments at the correct temperature and away from direct sunlight or moisture.
While public perceptions are shifting around the use of cannabis to treat a growing list of conditions, many still understand cannabis through the lens of stigma, misinformation and its history of criminalisation.
You might find that your parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles and other family members have different opinions about your medicinal cannabis use than your friends and your healthcare providers do.
If you're dealing with a loved one who doesn't support your medicinal cannabis use and it's affecting your relationship or wellbeing, here are five things you can do:
Change begins one person at a time, so why not start with a one-on-one conversation? You can ask your loved one to share what they know about medicinal cannabis and try to get them to open up to you about how they formed their strong opinions on cannabis use. Try to come to the conversation with an open mind and a will to understand your loved one’s experiences, and ask that they try and do the same for you. You might like to start by opening up about your health and medical condition and how it has been impacting your life and wellbeing prior to trying medicinal cannabis.
Perhaps your loved one grew up in a time where cannabis was demonised, or maybe they knew someone who had an unhealthy relationship with recreational drugs. It’s possible they’ve even tried cannabis recreationally themselves and had a bad experience! Whatever their background with cannabis is, try to understand where they're coming from without judging their beliefs or experiences. This will help you understand where to start with educating your loved one on the benefits and history of medicinal cannabis and debunking any misinformation they have come to rely on.
There are a wide range of studies, statistics and resources exploring the history, safety, benefits and medicinal uses of cannabis today and throughout human history. If you're going to try and educate your loved one and clear up misinformation, try to back yourself with the right research and resources to help you speak from a place of understanding.
Some reputable places to source your medicinal cannabis information from are peer-reviewed medical journals, university departments or initiatives dedicated to researching cannabinoid therapies, peer-reviewed articles about cannabis clinical trials and any reputable platform or initiative dedicated to exploring the benefits and uses of medicinal cannabis (always check any references they’ve provided to ensure they’re coming from reputable sources).
You might like to talk about how cannabis has been used as a medicine throughout human history, or how many countries have legalised cannabis as a medicine today. You can point to studies where cannabis has shown to be beneficial in treating or mitigating the symptoms of certain conditions, such as your own condition or even a condition your loved one suffers from, if you feel comfortable.
You might want to share the studies and information you come across with your loved one for them to look at on their own time so they can read and digest the information when they’re ready.
If you feel comfortable talking about your medicinal cannabis use, sharing how your medicinal cannabis treatment has helped you in managing or healing your condition can help your loved one understand your cannabis use on a personal level. You might talk about positive changes you've seen, how the treatments compare with other conventional treatments you've tried and how they've impacted your life overall.
If, for example, your medical cannabis treatment has helped improve your relationships with others by lessening the symptoms of anxiety or chronic pain, then you might talk about how medical cannabis has allowed you to spend more time or improved the time you spend with your loved ones, family and friends. You might talk about how it’s allowed you to do better at work, participate in activities or any other benefit your treatment has had on your symptoms and lifestyle. You may also like to talk about how other treatments you’ve tried were less effective or produced adverse side effects that were worse than those you’ve experienced with medical cannabis.
Anything you can share that will challenge your loved one’s ideas about how cannabis affects users will help break down any stigmas they’ve learned to associate with cannabis and help them understand your decision.
We can’t always change the minds of people with strongly-rooted beliefs. And that’s okay. How you choose to look after your health, as long as it is safe and legal, is entirely your decision. If you feel you’ve done all you can to change your loved one’s mind and you still haven’t seen eye to eye, trust that you and your doctor know what’s best for your health, and you don’t need to involve anyone who isn’t your healthcare provider, legal carer or guardian (if you are underage) in your healthcare decisions.
Even if your loved one hasn’t come around to the idea of your medical cannabis use right away, you may have made more progress than you think in shifting their beliefs. As time goes by and these treatments become more mainstream and readily available, you may find your loved one becoming more and more open to the idea of your medical cannabis use. In the meantime, try to learn to agree to disagree and remember there is a large community of patients, practitioners, scientists, pharmacists, growers, researchers and healthcare providers who can advocate for the uses and benefits of medical cannabis in treating a wide range of conditions.
Let’s break down the medicinal cannabis stigma, one conversation at a time.
The medical cannabis system in Australia hasn’t always been easy to navigate. With many still finding the pathways to accessing medicinal cannabis confusing and frustrating, and with Australian medical and legal attitudes towards cannabis being somewhat behind those of other countries, it’s no surprise that people are still turning to illegal pathways to access their cannabis products.
While recreational cannabis remains illegal in all states and territories except the ACT, medical cannabis is legal Australia-wide. Medicinal cannabis is any cannabis product prescribed by a qualified doctor to relieve the symptoms of a medical condition. And recreational cannabis is the illegal use (at the time of writing in Australia) of cannabis for any purpose, including social, pleasure, creativity, relaxation and/or self-medication. Cannabis is sometimes also referred to as 'marijuana' – learn about the history and implications of this term here.
In this article, we’ll answer some of your questions about accessing medical cannabis in Australia so you can make informed decisions about what you’re buying when it comes to your health.
The differences between the regulated cannabis products you can get with a prescription and the black-market products you might get from other sources run deeper than just who you get them from. The biggest differences between the two are quality, regulation, cost, and assurance and consistency regarding the active ingredients (cannabinoids) found within the product.
Put simply: with a medicinal cannabis prescription, you might pay more, but you’ll know exactly what you’re getting. When you buy cannabis illegally, you often won’t.
This may not be an important consideration for people who use cannabis for more recreational purposes like socialising or getting high. But for those who use cannabis to relieve the symptoms of a medical condition like anxiety or chronic pain, knowing what’s in your product and what dose you should be taking can make a big difference to your health.
Because recreational cannabis is unregulated in Australia, there’s a big risk that your therapeutic goals will not be met by the product you buy without a prescription. This is because the active ingredients in unregulated products have varied concentrations, may differ from what you’ve been told they are, or in some cases may not be present at all.
When treating a medical condition or taking cannabis for a specific purpose like relaxation or boosting creativity, it’s important to consider which cannabinoids are active within the product you’re taking. Knowing what’s in your product will help you ensure that your therapeutic or other goals are met, and that you’ll be less likely to experience any unwanted effects associated with specific cannabinoids.
In Australia, medicinal cannabis is categorised into three different types. These are:
How you experience your product will depend on the cannabinoids present, what dose you take, how it is taken and the quality of the product itself. For example, if your product contains mainly CBD, you won’t experience psychoactive effects. You may experience medicinal benefits such as pain or anxiety reduction, improved sleep, relaxation and/or relief from other symptoms associated with a specific medical condition. If your product contains mainly THC, you may also experience pain relief, reduced nausea or other medicinal benefits depending on your health condition/s. You will also likely experience the ‘high’ associated with THC, given its psychoactive properties.
When you access cannabis legally, you may be prescribed CBD, THC or a medication containing a combination of both, depending on the condition you’re treating. If you’re going to use cannabis as a medication, speaking with your medical professional is your best bet for ensuring you’re getting the treatment and care you need.
At the time of writing in Australia, CBD oil is legal with a prescription – just like any other medicinal cannabis product. As of 2021, you can legally purchase low-dose CBD (containing 98% cannabidiol and no more than 2% of other cannabinoids) over the counter at pharmacies without a prescription, however there are regulatory hurdles still to be cleared before you’ll see these products become available. And many experts are questioning the effectiveness of CBD oil at such a low dose, meaning more research is still to be done.
CBD oil has quickly become one of the most popular and sought after health products in Australia. But as the cannabis industry grows, so does the spread of false promises misinformation. Because of the lack of clarity around the laws and pathways to buying regulated CBD oil in Australia, many have turned to online sellers to buy their products. And this comes at a risk.
With the abundance of unregulated CBD oil products online claiming to cure everything from cancer to diabetes, it’s easy to see why Australians are choosing to buy their products from local or overseas websites. The important thing to note here is that buying any product online that actually contains CBD is technically illegal in Australia. Many buyers are aware of this and may choose to still buy online due to cost and convenience, however many are unaware that the products they are purchasing – if they do contain CBD – are illegal. If you are buying reputable products from overseas, you might want to consider whether the costs are actually that different to obtaining a prescription and purchasing regulated medicinal cannabis in Australia, as the prices often don’t vary much per mg level.
If you are buying CBD oil from local Australian websites, you are either buying products which do contain CBD (and are therefore illegal) or you are buying products which do not contain any CBD, but say they do (meaning you’re being lied to). In fact, in Australia, there’s a 1 in 4 chance that the CBD oil you buy online is ‘not what you think it is in terms of strength and potency’ and a 1 in 9 chance that you’re being sold an entirely fake product.
As with any treatment, the best way to ensure you’re getting what you need in terms of quality and effectiveness is to speak with a health professional.
To legally access medicinal cannabis products in Australia, you need a prescription from a qualified doctor. While many Australian doctors are still uncomfortable or unfamiliar with prescribing medicinal cannabis, there are a number of doctors who specialise in medical cannabis prescribing – often called cannabis doctors – who are familiar with the many health benefits that these treatments can offer. The best way to access medical cannabis is to find a trusted doctor – either your current GP or an authorised prescriber such as our Polln Practitioners – and discuss your current condition/s and why medicinal cannabis might be right for you.
When buying cannabis in Australia, it’s important to consider what you’re using it for and whether things like active compounds, quality, regulation and consistency of the product are important to you and your needs. This is especially true if you are using cannabis to treat a medical condition. While the pathways to accessing medicinal cannabis in Australia have not always been clear, the rise of cannabis clinics and increasing government action and public awareness about the benefits of these products is making it easier for patients to access the treatments they need.
At Polln, our biggest mission is to make alternative treatments like medical cannabis more accessible to patients living in Australia. If you’re unsure whether your current doctor can help you access medicinal cannabis, you can book a consultation with one of our Polln Practitioners who specialise in these treatments to discuss whether they might be right for you.
Over 130 conditions have already been approved for prescriptions, but many doctors and patients are still unsure about how to access medical cannabis treatments.
In this article we’ll help you understand your options and eligibility when it comes to accessing medical cannabis as a patient in Australia.
Medicinal cannabis (also referred to as ‘medical marijuana’) is any cannabis product approved for therapeutic use and prescribed by a doctor to alleviate the symptoms of a medical condition. One of the main differences between prescribed cannabis products and recreational cannabis, which is often used to self-medicate, is that prescriptions are made with individual patients' needs and symptoms in mind. Because recreational cannabis is unregulated in Australia, you won't have transparency around the origins, cannabinoid content, quality or safety of what you're consuming. But because medical cannabis is highly regulated in Australia, all prescribed cannabis treatments available to Australians have passed stringent tests for quality, content and safety. Meaning you'll know exactly what you're getting and how it can help with your individual symptoms and medical condition/s.
In Australia, medicinal cannabis mostly fits into three categories – mainly CBD, mainly THC, and a mix of CBD and THC. These are the main chemical compounds found in cannabis plants that are most commonly used for medicinal purposes, though other ingredients – like terpenes and flavonoids – are also important.
While recreational cannabis use (any use of cannabis without a prescription) remains illegal in all states and territories except ACT, medical cannabis is legal in every state in Australia.
Medicinal cannabis has been legal Australia-wide since 2016. It is considered an ‘unapproved’ medicine. So, to access it, your doctor must gain approval from the Therapeutic Goods Administration — the regulatory body that doctors apply to when seeking approval for patient prescriptions.
So, you’ve learnt what medical cannabis is… but are you eligible?
Even though medical cannabis has been legal for over five years now, there are still many misconceptions about who can obtain prescriptions.
Although it is always best to learn about the process and eligibility criteria yourself, it is your prescribing doctor’s responsibility to assess your condition and decide whether medicinal cannabis would be beneficial for you.
Criteria may sound like a daunting word to come up against when seeking out treatments, but don’t let it scare you away. The boxes you need to check off when considering your eligibility are:
If you’re a patient considering medicinal cannabis, there are three pathways you can take to access it:
Like other prescription medicines, your doctor can write a prescription for you after assessing your eligibility, medical condition/s, and other treatments you have tried. The Special Access Scheme allows your doctor to obtain approval to prescribe medicinal cannabis from the Therapeutics Goods Administration (TGA). Once the TGA approves your doctor’s request, your doctor can organise access to treatments and write up prescriptions.
While this might sound complicated, it is the most commonly used pathway to access medicinal cannabis. Unfortunately, many GPs aren’t well informed or prepared to go through this process with patients, so this pathway might not always be accessible. Although reliable information is shared more regularly now, stigma and misinformation still get in the way of patients seeking support.
If you are unsure whether your current GP can help you access medicinal cannabis, you can make an appointment to speak with one of our expert Polln practitioners who are experienced in prescribing medicinal cannabis treatments.
An Authorised Prescriber (AP) is a doctor who has already applied for and received the authority from the TGA to write prescriptions for specified patients. These practitioners don’t need to apply for approval from the TGA for individual patient prescriptions as they are pre-approved.
One of the benefits of taking this pathway is that APs are experts in prescribing medicinal cannabis and can write prescriptions as soon as they have assessed your eligibility – this means you’ll experience none of the wait time associated with other cannabis access pathways, such as the SAS pathway. An issue that arises when considering this route is that it’s not always easy to know if there is an AP located near you.
This pathway might not be the right option for everyone, but there is an urgent need for participants in clinical trials. As the demand for medicinal cannabis grows, so does the number of clinical trials.
Unlike patients in the USA and some other countries, Australian patients do not need, nor will they receive, a ‘medical marijuana card’ to access medical cannabis. Instead, Australian patients simply need to obtain a prescription from a healthcare professional using one of the above pathways to access medicinal cannabis treatments. Your prescription will allow you to access the specific medications you have been prescribed, and will be an important document to have handy incase you need to verify your legal patient status to law enforcement while on the move.
Wait times will vary between each access pathway, but the fastest route is through Authorised Prescribers as these practitioners don’t need to wait for the TGA to approve prescriptions. If you’re looking into the SAS pathway, note that it can take between 24–72 hours for your doctor to get a response from the TGA before your script can be provided to you or your treatments made available.
If you’ve read this article and are still feeling overwhelmed or confused – breathe. It might be daunting to begin this process, but there are guides you can follow and support you can access to help you along the way. To break this all down into simple steps:
Read up on facts and reliable information so you can make informed decisions. Learn about what medicinal cannabis is and how it can help you.
Check your eligibility.
Consider which option is best for you – GPs, Authorised Prescribers, or clinical trials.
Prepare to reach out. Once you’ve done your research and chosen your access pathway, it’s time to reach out to a doctor, Authorised Prescriber or an organisation running clinical trials for medicinal cannabis. To chat with an expert prescriber, you can sign up as a Polln patient or reach out to our Care Team who can provide additional support and guidance.
As the industry has expanded, we've seen and continue to see the following positive changes in the medical cannabis industry:
At Polln, our biggest mission is to make natural alternatives like medicinal cannabis more accessible to the patients who need them. That's why all of our services are designed to be as accessible as possible, with no hidden costs or surprises down the track. Access video consultations, expert advice from Authorised Prescribers, treatment delivery services and ongoing care from wherever you are. All online and Australia-wide. Learn more or sign up as a patient today.
Humans have turned to plants to feed, fuel and heal our bodies for as long as we have existed. In many communities, traditional and plant-based medicine remains the primary healthcare system, with over 60% of the world’s population depending directly on medicinal plants for their medical purposes.
Despite this, many in the West still view plant-based medicine as ‘alternative’ to or less effective than their synthetic counterparts. While modern medicine and pharmaceutical drugs have been vital in the treatment and prevention of countless diseases, it’s important to remember just how much our modern healthcare systems owes to plants. And to acknowledge the many benefits that safe, evidence-based use of plants can have in therapeutic and medicinal contexts.
Here, we take a look at five things you may not know about plant medicines and their uses today:
Early written records and even earlier physical evidence suggests that humans have known about and used plants for their medicinal properties for tens of thousands of years, with archaeological excavations indicating that the practice dates back at least as far as 60,000 years ago. Over time, established understandings of plants and their medicinal purposes have been developed amongst cultures and communities all over the world through trial and error, and the passing down of knowledge and experience. The first modern pharmaceutical medicines were derived from plants that humans had already been using to treat and prevent illness for centuries.
Some of the most common drugs prescribed to patients today continue to be derived from plants, fungi, bacteria and other living species that were widely used by humans in traditional medicine for centuries prior. Of the 120 active compounds currently isolated from higher plants and used in modern medicine today, about 80% indicate a positive correlation between their modern therapeutic use and the traditional use of the plants from which they were derived.
Many assume that because plants are more natural or wholesome than their synthetic counterparts, that they don’t come with the same level of risks and side effects. Just like any medicine that produces an effect on the body, plant medicines are capable of producing adverse effects like allergic reactions, rashes, asthma, headaches or even more severe effects. Plant medicines should always be taken in safe doses as directed by a healthcare professional, and any effects should be monitored closely.
Affordability, accessibility and enduring traditional beliefs and knowledge about plants and their uses has meant that traditional medicine, much of which relies on plants, has endured as the primary healthcare system for much of the world’s population. 60% of the world’s population and about 80% in developing countries depends on plants for medicinal purposes. This is in spite of conventional medicine’s history of challenging and suppressing herbal medicine as a viable and effective practise, but is also categorised by the lack of access to essential medicines faced by millions in developing countries.
Growing dissatisfaction with conventional, chemical drugs – including their side effects, over-prescription and associated risks of dependency – has led many to turn to plants as both a complementary or alternative treatment. While this increasing use comes with its own issues – including overexploitation of traditional plants and limited monitoring of the safety and quality of products on the market – their benefits when sourced and used responsibly are abundant. There is much established and ongoing research to support the use of plants in the treatment of numerous ailments, from minor to severe. Conventional medical practitioners are increasingly recommending plant medicines to their patients, and patients are increasingly seeking out holistic practitioners who will support them in their search for natural alternatives to conventional medicine. Doing proper research, engaging a reputable health professional and always using plant-based products as advised are just some of the ways you can ensure you get the greatest benefits from your plant-based treatments.
Before there was medicine, there was plant medicine.
For as long as humans have existed, we have turned to plants to nourish, heal and fuel our bodies. For much of human history, possessing knowledge of plants and their healing properties – or having access to someone with this knowledge – could often mean the difference between life and death. Much like other animals, humankind’s initial interactions with medicinal plants were based solely on instinct and experience as people sought relief from their injuries and illnesses. In time, this allowed for more established understandings of plants – including their medicinal uses and benefits – to emerge. Much of this knowledge has been passed down through generations in the form of oral and written records, healing traditions and cultural practises – often in the face of great hardship. Forced migration, colonisation, invasions and Euro-centric ideas about what defined ‘medicine’ and who should practise it led to the erasure, suppression and exploitation of healing practitioners and herbal medicines across the world – some of which endures today.
While herbal medicine has largely been surpassed by pharmaceutical drugs (a significant number of which are derived from plants) in modern medicine, there is a vast amount of established and ongoing research that supports existing Indigenous, traditional and folk knowledge about the use of plants for therapeutic and medicinal purposes.
While written records of plant medicines like poppy, thyme, caraway and cannabis can be traced back as far as the emergence of the earliest known form of writing by the Sumerians in 3000 BCE, archaeological excavations indicate that the practise of herbal medicine dates back at least as far as 60,000 years ago. Remains of opium poppies, ephedra, cannabis and other plants known to have medicinal properties found in Palaeolithic burial sites indicate early understandings of plant medicines among humans in this period, which were likely inherited from earlier generations and passed down to inform subsequent herbalism practises over time.
Few other plants can claim a history as enduring and closely tied to the human condition as the cannabis plant. Used as a herbal remedy, food and resource with greatly documented influence in medicine, ceremony and religion among civilisations throughout human history – cannabis is one of the oldest medicines on record.
Since its earliest known usage, the cannabis plant’s cultivation and use for medicinal purposes has been recorded in ancient and modern societies across Asia, Europe, the Middle East and beyond. Now scientifically-backed for its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory abilities as well as its effectiveness in relieving the symptoms of various conditions like epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and depression – the cannabis plant is slowly shedding its stigma and making its way into the mainstream medicine conversation.
Today, medicinal cannabis refers to the range of legal, approved and quality assured preparations of the cannabis plant and its cannabinoids for therapeutic use.
It is estimated today that at least 80% of the world’s population is using or relying upon herbs for basic healthcare needs. This is in spite of conventional medicine’s history of challenging and suppressing herbal medicine as a viable and effective practise. A resurgence of the mainstream use of herbs as medicine seems to have occurred in recent years out of growing dissatisfaction with chemical drugs and their side effects, with scientific research increasingly supporting existing understandings of the healing benefits of plants. It is no longer uncommon for a conventional health practitioner to suggest herbal and plant-based medicines as part of a treatment plan, nor is it unusual to seek out holistic or natural alternatives to conventional treatments for minor ailments. While increasing use of plant-based medicines comes with its own issues – such as overexploitation of traditional plants and medicines – their benefits when sourced responsibly and prescribed by a licensed practitioner can be expansive. To learn more about natural alternatives visit our blog post.
When it comes to supporting our body’s innate ability to heal itself, natural alternatives such as products, treatments and lifestyle changes can be used in place of conventional medicines and treatments for a more holistic healing process. When these therapies are used in conjunction with conventional medicine, they are typically referred to as complementary therapies.
Natural alternatives are regarded by many as cleaner, more balanced versions of their synthetic counterparts – meaning they can work in unison with our body’s natural healing process. Natural alternatives go hand-in-hand with holistic medicine, in that they support healing of the whole person and help to balance every aspect of a person’s health, rather than just treat individual symptoms.
Natural alternatives can include, but are not limited to:
Many of these therapies have been developed slowly over time to work alongside more conventional modern treatments and have been used by various cultures throughout human history.
Everyone is different, and has different preferences when it comes to what works for them and their health. Many people turn to natural alternatives out of dissatisfaction with more conventional or synthetic treatments they’ve tried, others are simply looking for a more natural way to support their health alongside their existing treatment plan. Here are some of the most common reasons you might want to try a natural alternative:
As with any treatment or medication, conducting proper research and speaking with your doctor before commencing an alternative treatment is advised.
Exploring the world of natural alternatives can be an exciting and empowering part of your journey towards better health. But before you commence a natural alternative or treatment plan, it’s important to do your research. Ensure you’re only working with qualified, registered practitioners and seek a referral from your doctor if necessary. Your practitioner should take all of your medical history, health, allergies and any conditions into consideration before prescribing any products and you should always consult with your doctor before abandoning any of your existing conventional treatments. Most reputable and licensed natural healthcare practitioners will be constantly updating their knowledge of health and medical advancements to be able to provide you with the best care possible.
Learn more about how natural alternatives can support your holistic wellbeing by exploring our Medicinal Cannabis Library.
Holistic health is the overarching philosophy of looking at a person’s health from every aspect – be it physical, emotional, social, spiritual or mental – and observing how imbalances in one or more of these areas can bring about unwanted symptoms in others.
While modern-day Western medicine has provided us with a long list of essential, life-saving medical advancements, it has also wired us to look at our health in terms of individual symptoms and treatments, rather than looking at the person – and all our parts – as a whole.
By considering how these interdependent parts of our personhood work together to either heal or bring about illness, holistic health provides an alternative or complementary approach to mainstream medicine that goes beyond treating symptoms as they arise. Instead, holistic health practises can support healing by tending to the vast array of factors that impact our wellbeing on a daily basis.
Holistic health looks beyond just the physical body when addressing health issues and symptoms – even those that manifest physically such as pain, fatigue or illness. While a symptom may cause pain or discomfort in a physical sense, its underlying causes (and therefore its treatments) can be more rooted in our emotional, mental, spiritual and social wellbeing than we realise. Similarly, how we take care of ourselves physically can have ripple effects on our health in other areas, such as our mental state or emotional wellbeing. Here, we look at the five key aspects of holistic health and how they can work together to impact our overall wellbeing:
When we think about health, most of us tend to think about the physical health of our bodies and how optimally they are functioning. Pain, illness, fatigue and tension are all examples of physical symptoms that are easy to detect and monitor, making them obvious indicators of health issues and imbalances. In mainstream medicine, these physical symptoms are typically treated with medications, physical therapies and/or surgeries – all of which can be incredibly beneficial to the patient depending on their needs and situation. What some mainstream practises fail to do however, is look at the underlying causes of physical symptoms which can manifest as a result of any combination of emotional, social, spiritual, mental and other physical imbalances. This means that while patients may find temporary or even long-lasting relief from their symptoms through mainstream medicines, many may be unaware of how much their environment, lifestyle choices, relationships and other aspects of their lives could be contributing to their physical health and wellbeing. Likewise, imbalances in our physical health such as our sleep, diet, exercise and lifestyle choices can negatively impact our health in other areas. This is why things like getting more sleep, eating more nutrient-rich foods and moving our bodies each day can help regulate our mood, emotions and mental wellbeing.
In tending to a physical or other unwanted symptom, a holistic practitioner will look at every aspect of a person’s health to determine the best treatment/s for them. Examples of treatments could range anywhere from massage and natural alternatives to stress-reduction techniques and therapy.
Emotional health refers to a person’s ability to maintain perspective and control over their moods and emotions as they navigate daily life. An emotionally healthy person is not necessarily someone who is happy all the time or who does not experience setbacks, but rather someone who has the tools and self-awareness to be able to ‘cope’ in a wide range of situations and changing environments.
Tending to our emotional health through emotional regulation practises like mindfulness and meditation, counselling and therapy or journaling and listening to music can be equally as important as tending to our physical health. Especially when we consider the impact that emotional distress is known to have on our bodies’ immune system and susceptibility to physical illness. Good emotional health is key to our ability to manage stress and build resilience, foster high self-esteem and self-awareness and form deeper social connections with others.
Beyond the emotional health practises listed above, we can also tend to our emotional wellbeing through physical health practises like exercising and getting more sleep; social health practises like spending time with loved ones and spiritual health practises like spending time in nature.
Researchers have consistently shown links between our social relationships and health, with poor social health being linked to physical and mental health issues like high blood pressure, heart attacks, cancer, depression and anxiety. Loneliness has also been linked to chronic conditions like heart disease and inflammation due to its impact on our immune systems, with studies stating that a lonely person is 50% more likely to die prematurely than someone with good social health.
Healthy and meaningful social relationships are incredibly important to maintaining good health in all other areas – mental, physical, spiritual and emotional – and are key to our ability to manage stress and experience joy in our lives. It’s important to note that the quality of our social relationships is equally as important as the quantity, and that negative or ‘toxic’ social relationships can be as harmful to our health as a lack of social relationships.
Good social health practises can include things like engaging with your community, turning to family and friends for support, building meaningful relationships with others, creating healthy boundaries, communicating effectively and making time for in-person connection.
Spiritual health can mean different things to different people, making it harder to define than other aspects of holistic health. While spirituality is distinct from faith or religion, the two can overlap depending on your individual beliefs. Spirituality can be defined as our connection to the intangible or non-physical parts of life, such as the feeling we get when we do something we’re passionate about or the meaning we apply to certain places, groups and practises. While for many spirituality can imply a connection to faith, for others it is simply about connecting to themselves, their purpose or the world around them.
We can support our spiritual health through doing things we enjoy or that make us feel purposeful, spending time in nature, practising faith and engaging with our community. All of these practises will enhance not only our spiritual health, but all aspects of our health and wellbeing.
Mental health is distinct from emotional health in that it refers to our overall cognitive wellbeing and the way our brain functions, rather than just our day-to-day mood and emotions. There are many things that can impact a person’s mental health – ranging from biological factors and physical wellbeing to socioeconomic pressures and relationships – and good mental health plays a vital role in helping us foster wellness in all other areas of our lives.
Supporting your mental health holistically can take on many forms. A combination of self-directed activities like getting more sleep, managing stress and eating a nutrient-rich diet can complement treatments like psychotherapy, art therapy, natural alternatives and/or medication for more effective results when treating or preventing mental illnesses and their causes.
Holistic practitioners employ a variety of treatments, suggestions and techniques to support their patients’ health, with the goal of holistic medicine being to treat the person – not just their individual symptom/s – as a whole. Your holistic provider should empower you with the knowledge and incentive to make informed decisions about what works for you, your health and your goals by suggesting a range of tailored, evidence-backed therapies based on your needs. By looking at your health from every aspect, you and your holistic practitioner will be best-placed to detect, treat and prevent imbalances while monitoring the impact they have on other areas of your health. It is in this way that holistic health can promote profound, long-lasting healing and empower us to take greater care of our overall wellbeing.